Editor’s note: This article is from WeChat public account “Jaziyear” (ID: jazzyear), author Liu Jingfeng, editor of Match Q.36 氪 Reprinted with permission.Vulcan Mountain Hospital once again refreshed people’s perception: a hospital can be built in 10 days.Even Fang Xiang, the project manager of China Construction Third Engineering, the Third Company and the Third Company, who has been engaged in civil construction for many years, also said to the media: “According to the normal process, projects with a construction volume of more than 30,000 square meters will take at least 2 years. The state of emergency is temporaryIt takes a month to build a building, not to mention a new infectious disease hospital? “But this is not the first time that Chinese infrastructure has refreshed people’s perception.The SARS epidemic raged in 2003 and urgently needed a hospital dedicated to treating SARS patients.In just 7 days, Xiaotangshan Hospital was built in haste.However, this time, the construction of Vulcan Mountain Hospital was much more difficult than that of Xiaotangshan Hospital. It coincided with a large number of workers returning home during the Spring Festival holiday. “Not to mention raw material procurement and logistics transportation, even eating and drinking Lasa on the construction site, these logistics are difficult to guarantee.”.A staff member of Wuhan Urban Construction Bureau said.Even so, Vulcan Mountain Hospital still looks like it came out of the ground: 50,000 square meters of land was leveled up in one day; construction drawings were obtained within three days, and the first model house was built; on the fifth day, the container board houses arrived on the scene.A double-layer steel ward steel structure was built. On the eighth day, the foundation concrete was poured and hundreds of sets of container board rooms were hoisted in the inpatient building. The supporting facilities were also set up more than half; it took another day to complete the indoor infrastructure and medical supporting facilities.installation.On the tenth day, a hospital with 1,000 beds was delivered.”Behind the speed is the innovation of China’s construction technology.” Wu Hongtao, secretary of the Party Committee of the China Construction Third Bureau and a company, said that the construction of the two hospitals of Vulcan Mountain and Thunder Mountain has adopted the industry’s most advanced assembly building technology to maximizeIt adopts assembled industrialized finished products, and at the same time, performs overall lifting after external splicing, and intersperses on-site construction and overall lifting, which greatly reduces the workload and time of field operations and maximizes efficiency.In fact, prefabricated buildings have a history of decades in China. As the demographic dividend has peaked, prefabricated buildings have also ushered in new opportunities.According to predictions from third-party institutions, the market size of China’s fabricated buildings in 2020 is expected to exceed 2 trillion yuan.In this article, Jiazi Light Year will take you to unlock the magic behind prefabricated building technology and the new changes that technology has brought to the construction industry today.Compared with the enthusiasm in the construction site, the supply relay race outside the construction site is the most solid thrust of the project.1. The assembly speed supported by the supplier On the afternoon of January 23, when Wuhan announced the closure of the city, Wuhan Urban Construction Bureau urgently called for the construction of the third bureau and other units, requiring them to refer to Beijing Xiaotangshan Hospital during the 2003 SARS fight.Model, a hospital dedicated to treating patients with new type of coronary pneumonia in Wuhan Staff Sanatorium-Wuhan Caidian Huoshenshan Hospital.The construction period of this hospital is only 10 days, but its construction area is more than 30,000 square meters. After it is completed, it will accommodate 1,000 beds, which is a great challenge for the project team and engineering team.However, at this time, all construction personnel did not retreat.As they rushed to the construction site, a relay operation from almost all parts of the country was staged.Even before the workers arrived at the construction site, China Zhongyuan International Engineering Co., Ltd., which was far away in Beijing, found out the construction drawings of Xiaotangshan Hospital that year and transmitted them to Wuhan, and designed the construction drawings overnight.Machines and other construction machinery also rushed to the construction site.Since then, successive batches of construction machinery such as excavators, bulldozers, mixers, cranes have rushed to the construction site of Vulcan Mountain Hospital.These machines leveled 50,000 square meters of land in two days, and built the first model house on the third day.The construction process of Vulcan Mountain Hospital is quickly replayed. It can be seen that the erected hospital building is indeed shocking, but more important things happen outside the construction site: according to the construction period, the first batch of boxes on January 27Type container board room should enter the construction site and begin hoisting.In order not to delay the construction period, on January 24, many prefabricated integrated house manufacturers in Wen’an County, Hebei Province began to resume work.The manufacturer of integrated installation houses in Hebei Province is deploying board room materials for Vulcan Mountain Hospital. This assembly type integrated house is also called box board house. It adopts modular design and factory production. It uses the box as the basic unit and can be used alone.It can also form a spacious use space through different combinations of horizontal and vertical directions. The vertical direction can be stacked. The indoor doors and windows, switches, power supplies, etc. are all equipped at the factory.This greatly reduces the workload on the construction site.In the construction of Vulcan Mountain Hospital, hoisting started from the first batch of box-type container board houses to hundreds of sets of box-type container board houses, which took only five days.Hospital sewage treatment is the top priority.On the New Year’s Eve on January 24, Xingyuan Environmental Technology Co., Ltd., a subsidiary of New Hope Group, received the task of participating in the construction of the sewage treatment system of Wuhan Vulcan Mountain Hospital.Subsequently, Xingyuan Environment undertook the construction of the sewage treatment project of Vulcan Mountain Hospital and served as the general integration of the project. Yinjiang Environmental Protection was responsible for environmental protection equipment.Six days later, on January 30, the sewage treatment equipment of Vulcan Mountain Hospital was hoisted.Some of the composite panels for the Vulcan Mountain Hospital project come from Hangzhou Zhensen Steel Structure Group.On the first day of the new year on January 25, Yin Zhenwei, the general manager of Zhensen Steel Structure Group, received an order from the construction company of Vulcan Mountain Hospital to provide 30,000 square meters of Class A fire-resistant composite panels within 5 days.In order to catch up with the construction period, the company recalled employees to work overtime that day.The next day, 23,000 square meters of slabs were shipped to the Vulcan Hill Hospital site.The main structure of the hospital house requires a lot of steel.At 4 pm on January 26, Hubei Zhongtuo received a task from Hubei Metal Materials Co., Ltd. to supply 240 tons of steel for Wuhan Vulcan Mountain Hospital Project.After 5 hours, the material was sent to the construction site of Vulcan Mountain Hospital.The adhesives commonly used in prefabricated buildings are provided by Huitian New Materials. These adhesives are used for structural bonding and waterproof sealing of mobile board room units and other materials.It is also reported that the digital construction platform service provider Guanglianda has united 80 building material suppliers to donate tiles, coatings, waterproofing, fans, pipes, cables, water purifiers, fire protection facilities, medical materials to the Vulcan Mountain Hospital projectWait for 15 kinds of equipment.In addition, according to incomplete statistics of Jiazi Light Year, there are still more than 20 building material suppliers at Vulcan Mountain Hospital and Thunder Mountain Hospital.This means that the successful completion of Vulcan Mountain Hospital and Raytheon Mountain Hospital will require more than 100 building material suppliers to participate in its construction.When talking about the speed of construction of the two hospitals, Wu Hongtao, party secretary of the China Construction Third Bureau and a company, said that this benefited from the implementation of assembled building technology.In a common understanding, prefabricated building is to build a house like “building blocks”, put aerial work on the ground and do it outdoors in the workshop, and let the machine do it manually.Traditional buildings need to be bandaged and welded on site, while prefabricated buildings are formed in a factory by mechanical equipment at one time.2. Industrialization changed the construction method. In the strict sense, the second industrial revolution gave birth to prefabricated buildings. The London Crystal Palace (later destroyed by a fire) was a representative of prefabricated buildings at that time.In the middle of the 19th century, the British industrial power decided to host an IWC (the first World Expo) in May 1851.However, the year before the Expo was held, the venue design was still undecided.At the last juncture, the greenhouse designer Joseph Paxton designed a venue constructed of wood, iron frame and glass in nine days.The result of the appearance of the Crystal Palace in London won the favor of the Royal Commission.The “Crystal Palace” has a length of 564 meters (equivalent to 1851 feet, symbolizing the construction in 1851), a width of 124.4 meters, and an area of ​​74,000 square meters.The shape of the stadium is a stepped rectangular parallelepiped, with only iron frames and glass on each side, without any extra decoration, which fully reflects the mechanical characteristics of industrial production.After completion, the “Crystal Palace” is the world’s first large-scale prefabricated building, and was even rated as a miracle of British construction engineering in the 19th century.It is amazing that such a large building has a construction period of less than 9 months.This “British speed” of the year was benefited from the large-scale production of standardized industry in Britain.For example, the largest area of ​​glass that could be produced at that time was 25 cm x 120 cm, so the panes made of crystal palace iron frames are suitable for this size or the same size.This modular building design greatly reduces construction costs and installation time.The development of prefabricated buildings really ushered in the 1950s.After World War II, houses in European countries and Japan were severely damaged, and there is an urgent need to solve the housing problem of a large number of residents.Prefabricated buildings with low manufacturing costs and short construction cycles meet this rigid demand.At the same time, the third industrial revolution (technical revolution) emerged, and mechanized and automated production lines became the mainstream of the industry. This provided good economic and technical conditions for the development of prefabricated buildings. The original brick wall on the construction site could be advanced.Prefabricated in the factory, the standardization and modular concept of prefabricated buildings began to form, and the development of prefabricated buildings has a market-based foundation.Japan, which urgently needs to build a house, formulated the “Five-year Plan for Promoting the Standardization of the Housing Industry” in 1969, and subsequently launched investigations and studies on materials, equipment, product standards, housing performance standards, and structural material safety standards, and strengthened residential productsStandardization.By the 1970s, there was a fixed system of component dimensions and functional standards for Japanese houses.As long as the structural components produced by the manufacturer according to the standard, they are universal in the assembly building.To this end, Japan has established an excellent residential parts certification system, which comprehensively reviews the quality, safety, and durability of residential parts.After decades of development, Japan’s residential production has been able to “produce houses just like cars.”Curing product standards, machines producing a large number of parts, and refining construction processes have made Japan an iconic country for residential assembly.Today, about 200,000 new low-rise dwellings are built each year in Japan, with a construction area of ​​about 3 million square meters. Most of them are light steel structure prefabricated houses, and the prefabricated building penetration rate is even close to 90%.In addition to the rapidly rising houses, the leading countries in this field have accumulated a series of industry standards and systems.After decades of development, developed countries with high levels of industrialization have developed various types of prefabricated building specific systems, such as the British L-plate system, the French prestressed assembly frame system, the German prefabricated hollow formwork wall system, and the American prefabricated parking system., Japan’s multi-storey assembled housing system.By 2017, the penetration rate of prefabricated buildings in the United States, France, Singapore and other countries has reached or exceeded 70%.In contrast, the penetration rate of prefabricated buildings in China in 2017 was only 8.4%, and the gap was very wide.Actually speaking, China’s prefabricated buildings started not too late.In the 1950s, China proposed in the “One Five-Year Plan” to draw on the experience of the Soviet Union and Eastern European countries to promote standardized, factory-made, mechanized prefabricated components and fabricated buildings in China.Even in 1959, China established the first modern prefabricated building, the Beijing Minzu Hotel, which used prefabricated prefabricated frames for the first time.Following the Beijing National Hotel, the establishment of the Beijing Civil Aviation Building in 1964 became the earliest assembled monolithic reinforced concrete frame structure in China.Since then, large-scale formwork systems such as “in-place pouring and external hanging” and modular steel structure buildings have appeared one after another, gradually forming a series of prefabricated concrete building systems.By the early 1980s, thanks to the rapid release of people’s living needs, the application of fabricated concrete buildings entered its heyday.Although industrial production promotes the improvement of prefabricated building systems, most designs and constructions are relatively rough.Some prefabricated buildings have cracks and inseparable joints after use. In addition, due to the lack of seismic design of early prefabricated buildings, a large number of prefabricated prefabricated houses were severely damaged after the Tangshan earthquake.In the late 1980s, domestic prefabricated concrete buildings were gradually replaced by cast-in-situ concrete building systems, and the development of prefabricated buildings has been stagnant for a long time.3. China’s Difficulties in Prefabricated Buildings In 2013, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development issued the “Twelfth Five-Year Plan for the Development of Green Buildings and Green Ecological Areas.”Structure and other industrialized building systems.In 2016, the State Council’s “Guiding Opinions on the Vigorous Development of Prefabricated Buildings” proposed that “to strive for 10 years or so to make prefabricated buildings account for 30% of the newly constructed building area”.In 2017, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development further clarified the development plan of prefabricated buildings: By 2020, the proportion of prefabricated buildings in the country will exceed 15%, of which the key areas will be over 20%, and the areas will be actively promoted to over 15%.The area is over 10%.Suddenly, the prefabricated building took the fast lane again.A set of data at that time showed the boom of prefabricated buildings: from 2011 to 2017, the size of China’s prefabricated building market increased from 4.32 billion yuan to 46.23 billion yuan, the market size increased by 970.14% year-on-year, and the compound growth rate reached about 35%..According to the “In-depth Analysis Report on China’s Prefabricated Construction Industry Market Forecast and Investment Planning 2018-2023” issued by the Prospective Industry Research Institute, according to the above plan, the requirement for “prefabricated construction to account for more than 15% of new construction area in 2020″It is estimated that in 2020, the prefabricated building area is expected to exceed 80 million square meters. At 2500 yuan per square meter, the market size will exceed 2 trillion yuan.This time, the prefabricated building has high hopes.Pollution on construction sites is almost universally known. Dust on the construction site and construction waste are one of the sources of pollution in each city during the construction phase.The prefabricated construction technology moved the process of building parts and components to the factory, which greatly reduced dust pollution and reduced construction waste by 70% to 80%.In addition, a prominent advantage of prefabricated buildings is the greatly shortened construction cycle.Generally speaking, compared to traditional cast-in-situ buildings, prefabricated buildings can shorten the construction cycle by 25% to 30%, save water by 50% to 60%, save wood by about 80%, and reduce construction energy consumption by about 20%.Another practical issue is that China’s labor force is declining and costs are rising.China’s prefabricated building, which has not started late, has not achieved great development, and there is another problem-the reform and opening up has released a lot of labor, especially after the state “allowed collective and individual construction industry” and “migrant workers can enter the city” in 1984A large number of cheap labors flocked to the construction industry, and the intensive labor force made up for the need to improve construction technology.In the 1980s, Shenzhen International Trade Building once created the “Shenzhen Speed”.At the fastest time, this 53-story building was built in just 3 days. The most frequently appearing picture of CCTV’s “News Network” at the time when reporting on Shenzhen was the tallest building in China.Since then, “Shenzhen Speed” has spread throughout the country.The reason why this speed is achieved is that the construction of the building has successfully used the sliding formwork process, and the second is that the powerful “manpower” has piled up.It was said that in order to build the building, the construction bureau of the China Construction Third Bureau selected more than 1,000 skilled workers from Wuhan and Jingzhou.Looking at the labor force in China’s construction industry, the number of employees in the construction industry in China has been rising for the past 40 years. Today, the number of employees in the construction industry has reached 55 million.However, with the aging of the population and the peaking of the demographic dividend, the upward trend is getting slower and slower. In contrast, the labor cost of China’s construction industry continues to rise, even rising faster and faster.Of course, in the construction industry today, building speeds of 5 days per floor, or even 3 days per floor, are also reached, but such speeds are mainly dependent on mechanized processes, which is quite different from previous manpower.”Now to any construction site, you will see that almost all middle-aged and elderly construction workers are on the site.” Su Qing, a project leader in Wuhan, said to Jiazi Guangnian.”The average age of construction workers on our site is close to 50 years old, and basically there are no young people. The only young people are either management personnel or people who know mechanical technology.” Su Qing said.This phenomenon is not an exception.According to statistics, the average age of management personnel in China’s construction industry is between 47 and 48 years old, and it is increasing year by year, which far exceeds the average age of the management of an enterprise.This problem will become more prominent in the future as the aging situation intensifies.”Ten years later, when the current workers are old and young people can’t get in, what to do? This problem is very real, so the construction industry must go assembly.” Su Qing, a project leader in Wuhan, said.But assembly is not as accepted as it currently is.A person in charge of a prefabricated project told Jiazi Guangnian that prefabricated buildings in China are only in their infancy.”The prefabricated construction projects we do are mainly government projects, such as resettlement houses, hospitals, schools, etc.” In fact, in addition to the policy encouragement, local governments will also require prefabricated buildings to achieve a certain ratio in certain projects.In 2019, most of the soil auctions in Nanjing basically require 100% of the prefabricated building area of ​​land and housing enterprises.”If I choose voluntarily, I will choose the pouring construction.” Said the person in charge of the project.He said that prefabricated buildings are currently difficult to popularize on a large scale in China, and one of the reasons is the constraints of equipment.Construction cranes have load-bearing restrictions, and concrete prefabricated walls can easily exceed tower cranes.Another reason is that the prefabricated walls of domestic prefabricated buildings lack uniform specifications, and there are differences in wall thickness, length and width, which poses many problems for later assembly.In addition, the assembly production of domestic fabricated buildings has not mechanized on a large scale and still requires a lot of labor, which results in a higher construction cost than the traditional on-site pouring method.”The cost of a prefabricated wall for a prefabricated resettlement house project I have done is as high as 2,000 yuan, while the cost of a traditional brick wall is more than 600 yuan, which is quite large,” said the person in charge of the construction of the project.Not only are construction workers waiting, but even home buyers are concerned about prefabricated buildings.”When I heard of prefabricated buildings, my first impression was simple houses, resettlement houses, rough, leaky, and poor quality. If I buy a building, I will definitely choose a traditional cast-in-place building.” A friend told “Jia Ziguangnian”.Taking only the two Wuhan hospitals that have attracted much attention this time as an example, Vulcan Mountain Hospital uses a container house, and Lei Shenshan Hospital is a temporary steel frame building.Whether the two hospitals will continue to be used after the epidemic situation remains to be determined after the epidemic situation.Xiaotangshan Hospital, 17 years ago, was demolished after use.At a Hubei province real estate industry assembly development seminar in July 2019, participating experts summarized four major problems that are difficult to popularize prefabricated buildings: all aspects of the upstream industry stand alone and the integration benefits are difficult to play; the degree of design integrationLow; overall engineering costs are high; lack of industry standards and low social acceptance.4. New Opportunities for Building Digitalization At present, the focus is not on whether prefabricated buildings are feasible, but how to make prefabricated buildings feasible.Just after the completion of Vulcan Mountain Hospital, the China Industrial Internet Empowerment Platform, Tree Root Interconnection, showed a set of data on the operation of Sany’s machinery at the site. From another perspective, the progress of the project: On January 24, the construction of Vulcan Mountain Hospital started.Construction, on-site assembly of about 200 excavators including Sany Heavy Industry, the excavator operation time surged 11 times in a day, began to cooperate with rollers, bulldozers and other land leveling work; 26th, most of the land leveling workBasically completed, the underground pipe network and HDPE (high density polyethylene) membrane laying were fully started, concrete pump trucks began to enter the site one after the other, and crane operation data appeared, and began to cooperate with on-site pipeline laying and container board room material entry; 28thFor the first time, the excavator operation data reached a peak, which was 30% higher than the two days before and after. In addition, the operation data of mixer trucks, cranes and other equipment rose rapidly, in which the working hours of mixer trucks increased nearly 50 times; the data for concrete pump trucks also increased.From nothing to beginning, it is shown that at the same time as the foundation works, the concrete pouring started; on the 29th, the concrete pump truck and mixingThe operation data all reached the peak. The crane operation data increased nearly 4 times from the previous day, and it surged from a lower level to more than 10 hours. It officially entered the hoisting phase. Since then, the crane operation time has continued to be high, and it only fell on February 2.The total installation time of 1,000 beds on site took about 5 days, and an average of 200 beds can be installed per day. On the 30th, each excavator worked for 13.3 hours, which is 30% longer than the two days before and after.The data reached its peak on January 31. The data can also be inferred that the construction area was expanded on the site or on the original plan, or the construction phase was completed in two stages.All these data come from Sany’s networked machinery operating on site.Under the Industrial Internet, traditional buildings have also begun to go digital.Compared with traditional empirical management, such data can more intuitively show the progress of the project, changes in operations, and even more accurate in terms of mechanical scheduling.A person close to Sany Heavy Industry told Jiazi Guangnian that in 2008, Sany Heavy Industry began industrial Internet applications; in 2013, it began to use process information.This means that cameras, sensors and actuators embedded in the construction site will collect real-time data on machinery, workers and materials.The collected data can inform stakeholders about the status of the construction work in progress.With IoT devices, construction companies can actively monitor fuel consumption, available resources, and worker behavior.In addition, IoT devices also help security managers monitor assets and check machine operation and maintenance status in real time.The most traditional construction industry has also begun to go digital.Advances in technology are beginning to remove barriers to the popularity of fabricated technology, especially with regard to inflexibility.Digital tools, such as building information modeling (BIM), can more easily assemble prefabricated components into traditional buildings, and build more sophisticated and flexible prefabricated component systems to achieve the collection, transmission, feedback, and 3D dynamic visual management of building information.In addition, advances in digital production methods, such as robotics and 3D printing, can also turn the ideal “batch customization” into reality.Wang Tiehong, president of the China Construction Industry Association and former chief engineer of the Ministry of Housing and Construction, said that the technology of the construction industry has crossed the main line, and the core is the profound and extensive influence of digital technology on the development of the construction industry.”The main responsible comrades of many large construction companies have paid great attention to the development of scientific and technological innovation in this field, and have taken the lead in the comprehensive application of BIM (Building Information Modeling) and cloud computing, big data, the Internet of Things, mobile Internet, artificial intelligence andDigital technologies such as 3D printing, VR / AR, digital twins, and blockchain. This is the way in which the Chinese construction industry can go hand in hand with the construction industry in some developed countries. It is likely that China’s construction industry will overtake the curve and lead the development of the world’s construction industry.The field of direction. “The desire is beautiful, but this road is not easy-in the extreme case of the epidemic, the advantages of relatively few labor and fast speed of prefabricated construction are magnified; but when we gradually return to the normal economic track, the realConstruction companies that can make up their minds to invest heavily in the “fabricated future” that are not favored today may not be the majority of the market.But the opportunity to “change the dynasty” always belongs to only a few people.The leapfrogging of prefabricated buildings from less than 10% (the current level in China) to 70% (the level of international development) will benefit a group of companies that seize the future, while profoundly changing the fundamentals of China ’s “infrastructure madness”:Many people can produce miracles, and technology is closer to the miracle itself..

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