Artificial intelligence counterfeiting: Shakespeare’s famous works are actually acting on behalf of?


Editor’s note: This article is from Ai Fan’er, author Lei Jianheng, 36 氪, published with permission.”Henry VIII” is one of Shakespeare’s many famous plays, but the place where this work is famous is different from other Shakespeare books, and it can even be said to be a bit awkward.Because this work is the most talked about by everyone, it is its “origin”.To put it simply, many people suspect that this work is not written by Shakespeare at all, but some people “write for it”.In fact, there have been a lot of controversies since the release of this work.Many critics have criticized the language and plot of the work, thinking that its language is not beautiful enough, and the plot is not compact enough, and therefore doubt whether it is Shakespeare’s play.▲ “Henry VIII” James Poustin, after carefully studying “Henry VIII” in 1850, also seriously suspected that this work was not from Shakespeare, but another playwright Fletcher, and published anThe paper “Who wrote Henry VIII of Shakespeare?”In fact, Liang Shiqiu raised the same doubts in the preface when translating this work, and later recorded it in” The Author’s Question “.The discussion of this issue in the literary world has never stopped.Recently, a powerful accuser has emerged to address this issue, but he is not alone, but an AI.Researcher Petr Plecháč from the Czech Republic developed an algorithmic system that analyzes literary styles, so he entered the controversial Henry VIII into the system for analysis.First of all, Plecháč input Shakespeare’s contemporary works and the work of “writing” suspect Fletcher into the algorithm system, letting the system learn their respective language styles, writing habits, and so on.After the system was studied, Plecháč finally entered Henry VIII into the system and analyzed it word by word.The final result is the same as everyone else’s conjecture before. “Henry VIII” was indeed completed by the cooperation of two people, and the other person is everyone’s suspected Fletcher.From the analysis results of the system, there are many sudden changes in the style of the play, such as the third act of the first act, the first act of the third act, and so on.From the statistical results, only about half of this work really comes from Shakespeare.▲ AI analysis results, the picture comes from: “Relative contributions of Shakespeare and Fletcher in Henry VIII” Of course, in order to make the test more rigorous and more contrast, Plecháč will also write another “writing” suspect Philip Massinger’sThe work is also input into the algorithm system, allowing the algorithm to learn his literary style.However, the results show that although there are similarities to the writing styles of Philip Massinger and Henry VIII, the proportion is not worth mentioning compared to Fletcher, so Philip Massinger can be basically excludedSuspect.According to Plecháč, although the algorithm system discusses language style and writing habits, it is more based on a combination model of word formation.But for drama, this is actually the author’s identification rate.Therefore, the result of this “counterfeiting” is quite reliable.(Cover image from Pexels)