Editor’s note: This article is from the micro-channel public number “Things think tank” (ID: iot101), Author: Zhao Xiaofei, 36 krypton release authorized.The official website of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the WeChat public account officially released the “Notice of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology on Accelerating the Development of 5G”.As the first heavy redhead document for the development of 5G in 2020, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology has comprehensively deployed in various aspects of 5G network construction, application promotion, technology development, security assurance, and organizational implementation. It can be regarded as the “generalProgramme. “Recently, the official website of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the WeChat public account officially released the “Notice of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology on Accelerating the Development of 5G”.As the first heavy redhead document for the development of 5G in 2020, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology has comprehensively deployed in various aspects of 5G network construction, application promotion, technology development, security assurance, and organizational implementation. It can be regarded as the “generalThe “programme” needs to be carefully studied by all parties in the industry chain and used as the focus of the next step.Of course, most of the work deployment in this document is what the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the industry have always emphasized, and some of the new formulations are more worthy of our in-depth study. We can see the country’s determination and some new ideas for the development of the 5G industry.In my opinion, the new highlights worthy of attention in this document include the following five points: support for basic telecommunication companies to target 5G independent networking (SA), control the scale of non-independent networking (NSA) construction; adjust the 700MHz band frequency usePlan to accelerate the implementation of 5G frequency use licenses in the 700MHz band; release part of the 5G millimeter wave frequency band use plans in a timely manner; carry out special frequency planning studies for the 5G industry (including the Industrial Internet) and implement technical test frequency licenses in a timely manner; promote network sharing and inter-network roamingThe five highlights highlight the country’s support and ideas for 5G network construction, spectrum planning, and network operations.The author analyzes these five bright spots one by one.01 Controlling the Scale of Non-Independent Networking (NSA) The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology in this document clearly put forward “supporting basic telecommunication enterprises to target 5G independent networking (SA) and controlling the scale of Non-Independent Networking (NSA)”, as can be seenThe official attitude towards the 5G network deployment route, NSA gradually decreases as a transitional solution, and SA will certainly become the mainstream 5G deployment method.Independent networking (SA) and non-independent networking (NSA) are two networking options for 5G.To put it simply, the so-called NSA networking is to use 5G’s existing core network + new 5G base stations to quickly implement 5G deployment, while SA is the core network and base stations are all newly built.NSA networking mainly supports 5G eMBB business scenarios, while SA can support 5G eMBB, uRLLC, and mMTC business scenarios.One of the key differences is whether there is a 5G core network.As 3GPP frozen the first 5G standard in December 2017, this version of the standard is a standard that supports the NSA, laying the foundation for operators who want to accelerate commercial 5G; in June 2018, the 5G SA networking standard was frozen.Therefore, the SA networking standard is six months later than the NSA. In addition, the NSA can reuse 4G network elements, so the industrial ecology of the SA is later than the NSA.In 2019, before the issuance of 5G licenses, there was a wave of discussions in the industry about whether to deploy NSA first and then SA, and many views believe that SA should be the target.Of course, at the initial stage of the 5G license issuance, in view of the completeness of the industrial ecology, operators first mainly used NSA networking and gradually transitioned to SA.The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology stated this time that SA’s status was further established.From the actions of operators, SA has actually been taken as the core goal of 5G network construction.As early as the GTI summit in June 2019, Yang Jie, chairman of China Mobile, said: “Many 5G base stations in 2019 are based on NSA. To make 5G work, SA must be the target architecture network.”Recently, Yang Jie said: “China Mobile should take the development of 5G as a major political task, accelerate the development of 5G construction, and comprehensively carry out SA end-to-end performance testing.” And on March 10, China Unicom and China Telecom jointly launched 5GEquipment bidding, and the object of this collection is the SA wireless main equipment, a total of about 250,000 stations.02 It is well known that the 700MHz frequency band is adjusted for use. The 700MHz frequency band has always been owned by radio and television, and this frequency band is a golden frequency band, which is of great significance for wireless communication networks, especially 5G deployment.Prior to the issuance of 5G licenses, China Radio and Television was unanimously considered by the industry as the candidate for the fourth largest 5G operator. On June 6, 2019, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology issued a formal 5G commercial license also confirmed the industry’s speculation.However, after obtaining the license, which 5G spectrum will be obtained by China Radio and TV, it is the most important issue for the industry in radio and TV 5G commercial use.As early as December 2018, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology issued 5G frequency licenses to the three major operators, China Mobile, China Telecom and China Unicom.Subsequently, with the issuance of multiple spectrum licenses, China Radio and Television’s 5G spectrum allocation pattern was initially determined, including the issue of the 4.9GHz band 5G test frequency to Radio and Television in January 2020, and China Telecom, China Unicom, and China in February 2020.Broadcasting and television jointly use the 3300-3400MHz frequency band for 5G indoor coverage.The entire spectrum allocation pattern is: China Telecom: 3400-3500MHz China Mobile: 2515-2675MHz, 4800-4900MHz China Unicom: 3500-3600MHz China Radio and Television: 4.9GHz band China Telecom, China Unicom, China Radio and Television: 3300-3400MHz shared indoor frequency band inOn many occasions, China Radio and TV has stated that “adopt low-frequency + intermediate-frequency cooperative networking strategy”, among which, the intermediate frequency is 4.9GHz and 3300-3400MHz, and the low frequency is 700MHz.However, the intermediate frequency is a frequency band that the radio spectrum regulatory agency has clearly used for 5G networking, while the low frequency is not explicitly used for 5G networking.According to the Radio Regulations of the People’s Republic of China, “radio spectrum resources are owned by the state.” The Radio Management Bureau of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology is responsible for the division, allocation and assignment of radio frequencies.Although 700MHz was previously granted to radio and television, its scope of use is clearly used by radio and television and microwaves, and is not assigned to 5G mobile communications. It is not legal to use it directly for commercial 5G.The 700Hz spectrum used for 5G must go through a special process, “stripping” from the previous range of use, and then assigned to the national radio regulatory agency allocation sequence, and then can determine the latest scope of use.The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of the People ’s Republic of China has proposed to “adjust the 700MHz band frequency use plan and accelerate the implementation of the 700MHz band 5G frequency license.” The author believes that there are two trends: on the one hand, the 700MHz future plan for 5G will be implemented; on the other hand, it will be launchedLegal procedures for radio allocation, “unbundling” of 700MHz, accelerating its use for 5G.Of course, in the end, which operator or 700MHz will be awarded to multiple operators, further attention needs to be paid to policy trends.03 Issued part of the 5G millimeter wave band frequency use planning As early as 2019, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology issued the “National Essentials of Radio Management Work in 2019”, which proposed that “the 5G system part of the millimeter wave band frequency use plan will be released in a timely manner.”In 2019, the 5G commercial license was released, and operators completed the deployment of 130,000 5G base stations in the mid-band, and the maturity of the mid-band related industry chain is high.This time, millimeter wave is put on the agenda again. It can be seen that the industry’s demand for millimeter wave commercial use has started to rise.As we all know, millimeter wave generally refers to the frequency range of 24.25GHz-52.6GHz.With the development of mobile communications, the scarcity of radio spectrum is becoming more and more prominent, coupled with the trend of higher and higher data transmission rates, millimeter-wave communication technology has also received more and more attention.It can alleviate the limitations of network spectrum resources, significantly increase network speed, and effectively solve problems such as network coverage in hot spots.Of course, millimeter wave penetration is weak, and the coverage is small. When building a network, a large number of base stations need to be built to improve coverage, and the input cost is extremely high.At the same time, the challenges for products in practical applications are very great.In November 2019, China’s IMT2020 (5G) promotion team revealed the pace of China’s millimeter wave test: 2019 will focus on verifying 5G millimeter wave key technologies and system characteristics; in 2020, it will focus on verifying the functions, performance and interoperability of millimeter wave base stations and terminals., 2020 to 2021 to carry out typical scenario verification.Through millimeter wave tests in China, the purpose is to verify the key technologies and main characteristics of 5G millimeter waves, to formulate the functional requirements of 5G equipment in the 26GHz band, and to guide the research and development of 5G millimeter wave base stations, core devices and terminals.The characteristics of the millimeter wave scene. Its technology has put forward new requirements for key components such as baseband, radio frequency, antennas, inverters, phase shifters, power amplifiers, low noise amplifiers, and RF switches. There is still a large gap in the technical reserves of domestic enterprises.The industrial ecology is not yet perfect.The commercialization of 5G by US carriers started in the millimeter wave band. Although millimeter wave has to be selected because of the current status of its domestic spectrum, its related devices are highly competitive.Therefore, the “timely release of part of the 5G millimeter wave frequency band use plan”, this “timely” depends more on the development of the industrial ecology and the progress of the test to ensure China’s 5G competitiveness.04 5G industry (including the Industrial Internet) dedicated frequency planning Since the launch of 5G, many industry leaders at home and abroad have shown great enthusiasm for 5G private networks, of which industrial enterprises have the highest enthusiasm.Of course, companies in the communications industry have also shown some enthusiasm. For example, Nokia said at the end of 2019 that it has developed more than 120 private network customers, involving transportation, energy, public sector, logistics and manufacturing and other specialized networks.It can also be a cellular network deployed using 3GPP standards. Currently, there are many forms, including private low-power wide-area networks (LPWAN), LTE-based broadband wireless private networks, and 5G private networks. These networks are physically connected to public networks.Isolation, private network dedicated can achieve security and service guarantee.Although 5G network slicing can also provide a private network-like experience, some industry users are still willing to build their own private networks.Compared with private LPWAN and private LTE networks, a large number of manufacturers are currently planning to build private 5G networks. The industry also has high hopes for 5G private networks. Many experts believe that 5G private networks will become a mainstream network deployment method in the 5G era.The development of 5G private networks, and the development of spectrum policies and technologies are among the most important factors.There are generally three types of spectrum usage in private networks: dedicated spectrum, shared spectrum, and unlicensed spectrum.Dedicated spectrum generally includes two forms: the first is that the private network operator obtains a dedicated spectrum license issued by the regulator, and the second is the use of the spectrum of the public network operator in some special geographical areas.The second method has a certain degree of complexity in operation, because it is necessary to ensure that there is no access to public network customers in these regions, followed by the second authorization of the spectrum license of the public network operator. However, this form may give public network operationsOperators bring some new revenue, such as helping private network operators to deploy, operate, and optimize their networks. After all, public network operators have extensive experience in this area.There have been many practices in using dedicated spectrum, especially the first form of dedicated spectrum. Many industries, such as power, civil aviation, railways, and public security, have deployed dedicated private networks by using dedicated frequencies.In the future, the biggest difficulty for more enterprises to deploy 5G private networks is that it is too difficult to obtain dedicated spectrum. At present, many countries have begun to introduce policies in this regard to increase the amount of private network dedicated spectrum available.Of course, dedicated spectrum is very scarce after all, so shared spectrum and unlicensed spectrum also come in handy.Shared spectrum is a “lightly licensed” spectrum use method. Some national regulatory agencies will introduce some shared use spectrum use systems. Industry users can use shared spectrum to deploy their private networks.Many countries around the world have introduced shared spectrum policies, and some manufacturers have also begun to practice, and this aspect does not start from scratch.The policy of reserving dedicated spectrum for private networks overseas is most typically Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States.For example, in 2019, the German Federal Network Agency issued a 5G frequency framework clause for local use, and decided to reserve spectrum in the 3700-3800 MHz band for applications such as industrial automation, agriculture, and forestry, and will proceed according to the application.Distribution without auction.After the release of this policy, Volkswagen, Mercedes-Benz, Siemens, Bosch and other manufacturers have started testing and deployment of 5G private networks.In addition, the CBRS in the United States and the UK’s local licensed access spectrum policy have provided favorable conditions for 5G private networks.The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology mentioned that “developing a dedicated frequency planning study for the 5G industry (including the Industrial Internet) and timely implementation of technical test frequency licenses” can be said to be the first time that the 5G industry dedicated network frequency has been written into the government ’s redhead document, and key industries are consideringDemand, in line with the development trend of 5G private networks, promote the development of 5G network deployment in various formats.05 The phrase “promoting network sharing” is mainly in the phrase “promoting network sharing and inter-network roaming”.The so-called “internet roaming” means that the user uses the SIM card contracted by one operator, and can also use the network of another operator.For example, international roaming, which everyone is familiar with, can use mobile communication services by accessing the networks of other operators without the coverage of the local operator’s network abroad.However, domestic network roaming has not been implemented.At present, in the construction of 5G, China Unicom and China Telecom have carried out joint construction and sharing cooperation, which has largely saved the cost of 5G investment and further improved network services.To a certain extent, inter-network roaming can also be regarded as a network co-construction and sharing method, and it is the method that minimizes the network and minimizes the cost, because a large amount of work is mainly completed between different operator billing systems.The communication industry professional community “Communicator’s Homeland” has explained in detail the inter-network roaming, citing some points of view including: no coverage in the home operator’s network, weak signal, terminal does not support the network system of the location, congestion, failure and other conditionsAt that time, automatic roaming switches to other operator networks to continue to provide services to customers; when the home operator network is available again, it automatically switches back and uses the home operator’s network first.The system adopts automatic control of the system and gives priority to using the roaming strategy of the home operator’s network, which will not cause customers to roam a lot and vicious competition.This roaming strategy is more complementary.The customer only settles with the home operator, the customer roams out, and the communication fee charged by the home operator from the customer is partly distributed to the roaming service operator.If 5G inter-network roaming can be achieved, several operators can use the network of friends and merchants to improve the quality of service to their customers, while saving investment costs.The document of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology also clearly stated: “Accelerate the formation of a multi-network coexistence in hotspots and one network underpinning in remote areas to create a resource-intensive and efficient 5G network.”Driven by these efforts, the competition and cooperation relationship between operators is closer, and the cooperation between them is more motivated.After the co-construction and sharing of the network, inter-network roaming was emphasized. It can be seen that the government’s attitude towards 5G development is to make every effort to reduce investment costs and improve user service levels.The industry’s expectations for inter-network roaming are also very high, and 2020 may become a pilot year for inter-network roaming.At the same time, the number portability network that is currently being carried out across the country may be affected. After all, for users, inter-network roaming and number portability are to use the best network services, but the inter-network roaming process is simpler.Basically, it does not bother users.Summary In this document, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology also puts forward: Fully bring into play the scale effect and leading role of new 5G infrastructure, and support high-quality economic development.Many of the above five highlights are reflected in the government’s redhead document for the first time, and they are also actively promoted by the industry, reflecting the bold innovation of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology in the formulation of 5G policies and conforming to market trends…

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