Editor’s note: This article is from the micro-channel public number “travel a passenger” (ID: carcaijing), Author: Jia Ru, Wang Binbin, editor: Shi Zhiliang, 36 posted krypton authorized.Nissan Motors filed a civil lawsuit against Carlos Ghosn in the District Court of Tokyo, Japan on February 12, demanding compensation for 10 billion yen (about $ 91 million) in economic losses.Nissan Motors stated that “the company’s financial losses were caused by Ghosn’s years of corruption, including illegal embezzlement of company funds, the use of overseas homes without compensation, and the private use of company jets.”At the end of 2019, Carlos Ghosn, the former Nissan chairman who was bail at home, fled Japan.On January 8, 2020, Ghosn, who successfully completed “jailbreak”, held a press conference in Lebanon to anger Nissan.Ghosn said he was “convicted before the world” as a “conspiracy” by former Nissan executive Hirohito Nishikawa and others.Ghosn said, “I love Japan very much, and I also love this company. That’s why I devote myself to this job. I can’t understand why Japan returns good for evil, I make so many contributions to this country, why theyWill you do this to me? “” Nissan went downhill and pushed all the mistakes to me, which is very bad. “Ghosn even asserted at the press conference that they decided to” turn the Ghosn era “, this homeThe company has no future. “Because this company will not have any growth, no new strategic projects, and no new technological innovations.” Nissan’s life is indeed not very good today, the third quarter of fiscal 2019(October-December) The financial report showed that Nissan’s global sales this quarter were 2.5 trillion yen, down 18%, the company’s operating profit was nearly 23 billion yen, and the net loss for the quarter was 26.1 billion yen.”We are making progress, but sales have been weak, which requires us to do more reorganization than originally planned.” Nissan CEO Makoto Uchida said.As early as 1911, Nissan Motors was a pioneer in the Japanese automobile industry and also created a glorious global sales. It encountered the dark moments of the 1990s and was rescued by a “cost killer” from Lebanon.History is ups and downs. This Japanese automaker who was appointed CEO in October last year faces a similar situation as when Ghosn took over. How will he lead Nissan to break through and rebirth?Founder Yoshikawa Takigawa in the 1930s was an era of turbulent Japanese cars.In 1931, a company whose main business was producing corks for wine bottles launched its first mass-produced three-wheeler truck, which was named Mazda.In 1933, Toyota Automatic Loom Manufacturing, which has been engaged in the textile industry, established the Automotive Division and began manufacturing automobiles.On December 26 of the same year, Yoshisuke Aikawa established a car manufacturing company with a registered capital of 10 million yen in Yokohama, Japan. In June 1934, the company was renamed “Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.”.Yoshikawa Takikawa was born in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Changzhou in 1880. His mother was the niece of the Meiji Restoration Gen.The former Changzhou patriarch Migawa Hachikawa (10th generation parent) was his father.The politicians who came out of Yamaguchi Prefecture still control the Japanese government to this day. In history, he has served as nine cabinet ministers, and Shinzo Abe also came from here.▲ Yoshisuke Takigawa, founder of Nissan. In 1903, Takigawa Takigawa, 23, graduated from the Mechanical Engineering Department of Tokyo Imperial University Engineering University and entered Shibaura Works.After that, he went to the United States to work as a mechanic in a wrought iron factory, and spent more than a year learning and mastering casting technology.In 1908, he went to the United States to study again. After returning to Japan, Horikawa set up Tojo Casting Co., Ltd. in Kyushu, mainly producing automobile parts.The time soon came to 1928 when Yoshikawa Takikawa founded a holding company called Nihon Sangyo, which was later abbreviated as “Nissan” on the Tokyo Stock Exchange and developed during the Second World WarAs Japan’s fourth-largest chaebol, it controls a large number of important companies, including Hitachi and Tobe Castings.In 1931, Tochigi was no longer satisfied with the production of automobile parts, began to plan to enter the automobile manufacturing industry, and successfully acquired the DAT automobile manufacturing company in the same year.DAT’s predecessor was the fast-forwarding car factory established in 1911. This Tokyo-based automobile company is committed to localizing cars in Japan and has become a pioneer in Nissan’s auto industry.In 1914, the first DAT car of the Fast Forward Society was born. The name of the new car was derived from the Roman pinyin prefixes of the three company partners: Den Kenjiro, Aoyama Rokuro, and Takeuchi Meitaro.).This car also has an interesting name-Tutu.As the first domestically produced vehicle including an engine in Japan, Tutu took off at the Taisho Expo that year and won the bronze medal.▲ In 1914, the first DAT car was completed. In 1918, the registered capital of the fast-forwarding agency auto factory with 60 employees increased to 600,000 yen. It became the fast-forwarding agency, and then completed and released the Model 41 DAT and installed it in Japan.The first single-cylinder 4-cylinder engine.In 1925, the fast forward company did not manage well. In order to strengthen sales, the DAT Automobile Chamber of Commerce was established, and the following year merged with the DAT Automobile Manufacturing Company, which was renamed from Utility Automobile Manufacturing.DAT Motors has been developing a 495 cc automotive production line since 1930 to sell in this new market segment.The following year, after being acquired by Tojo Cast, the new small car “Datsun” was born, meaning “Son of DAT”, but because “son” is pronounced in Japanese as “”” Means “sun”.With the sale of Datsun, Minagawa saw a broader market. In 1933, Toyako Founder established the Automotive Business Unit to truly enter the automotive industry. In October of the same year, the company purchased the second subsea reclamation from Yokohama 2Wanping (about 66,000 square meters) of land.In December, Nippon Industries Co., Ltd. controlled by Horikawa and Tohoku Casting each invested 6 million yen and 4 million yen to establish an automobile manufacturing company.On June 1, 1934, with the approval of the shareholders’ meeting, Nippon Industries Co., Ltd. wholly owned 100% of the original automobile manufacturing company and renamed it “Nissan Auto Co., Ltd.”. Nissan Motor officially entered the stage of history.The glory of the 50’s and 80’s: In the 1950’s, the largest imported automobile company in the United States gradually increased the ambitions of Nissan’s senior managers, believing that its Datsun small car production line could enter a larger stage: the world’s largest automobile market, the United States and Australia and other international markets.In December 1952, Nissan signed a technical cooperation agreement with the British Austin Motor Co., Ltd.The agreement requires Nissan to produce all Austin parts locally within three years, a goal Nissan has achieved.Nissan produced and sold Austin for seven years.The agreement also gives Nissan the right to use Austin’s patents, which Nissan used in the development of engines for its own Datsun automotive series.In 1953, the British-made Austin was assembled and sold, but by 1955, the Austin A50, fully manufactured by Nissan and equipped with a new 1489 cc engine, was launched in Japan.In 1966, Nissan and Prince Motors merged to acquire two luxury models, Skyline and Gloria.At the same time, Nissan opened up new territories around the world.The first Datsun (1000 cc cars and trucks) was shown at the 1959 Los Angeles Auto Show.Nissan started production in Mexico in 1966, and later in Australia and Taiwan.Toward the end of this changing decade, Nissan has built a good reputation in both the US and Japanese markets.The 1967 Datsun 2000 sports car was valued for its style and performance, becoming synonymous with Nissan’s early design.By the end of the 1960s, Nissan had reached a milestone of cumulative exports of 1 million vehicles.▲ Nissan after the Datsun 2000 Roadster is still going well.In 1971, annual sales in the United States exceeded 250,000 vehicles for the first time.Especially after the oil crisis of 1973, people began to buy small economic vehicles with high quality and small displacement from large quantities.Prior to this, American consumers preferred sports cars with large displacements and strong winds.However, problems such as high oil prices and refueling teams after the oil crisis have led people to start buying cars with small displacement.At the time, the forward-looking vision of the Japanese leaders made them ready for the Black Swan incident early, and American car companies had to give up the market.In 1975, Datsun became the largest auto importer in the United States.Datsun sales were 335,415, while Toyota and Volkswagen were 328,918 and 268,751 respectively.Nissan opened its first U.S. plant in Smyrna, Tennessee in 1983, and Nissan Motor Company (NMC) was established in Gardena, California.That same year, Datsun introduced the first sports car, the SPL 201.In addition, Nissan decided to establish a factory in Sunderland, England, within the European border.Completed in 1986, the plant is a subsidiary of Nissan Motor Manufacturing (UK) Ltd. and has since become the most productive plant in Europe.British Nissan Note, Micra and Qashqai are all produced in the British factory.Turning from prosperity to decline, “Ghosn” came to life in the early 1990s. Nissan’s internal managers gradually became seriously lacking. The business model once considered to be at the forefront of the times and led the latest trend no longer exists.Old trick.Company executives are not capable of grasping market changes and consumer demand. One of the typical cases is that when the sales of Z-type vehicles declined, the management not only delayed the operation of remodeling similar vehicles, but even decided to reduce production.Recognized important products.And the alliance with the supplier’s company has also become the last straw that crushes the camel: Nissan executives believe that it is obliged to purchase from the partners of the enterprise’s group, so the amount paid is higher.The malicious price increase caused Nissan to do nothing and had to fight the trapped beast.Former Nissan Chairman Yu Yiwen acknowledged in 1999 that the company suffered far more serious problems than expected, and stated that the practice of cross-shareholding has become a mandatory burden for Nissan and other Japanese companies.Nissan’s problems don’t stop there. According to Japanese society and culture, the senior managers of large companies are basically slowly promoted from ordinary employees. They are accustomed to requesting reports. They have a lack of courage and perseverance when they look forward to work.Be a “good old man”.At the same time, obedience and conservatism in Japanese culture are also unconsciously consolidating such a working atmosphere, which eventually leads everyone to consider cutting off “corporate alliances” as a taboo.By 1999, Nissan Motor Co. had lost money for seven consecutive years and had a debt of $ 22 billion.The market share dropped from 6.6% to less than 5%, and the company was on the verge of bankruptcy.On May 28 of that year, Renault acquired a 36.8% stake in Nissan for $ 5.4 billion at a price of 400 yen per share, becoming a major shareholder of Nissan and forming the Renault-Nissan Alliance.In the same year, Renault appointed Carlos Ghosn, his chief operating officer, as chief operating officer of Nissan, and holds a 22.5% stake in Nissan Diesel.From the end of the 20th century to the beginning of the 21st century, the automobile industry was popular. At that time, the merger of the largest and most notable Daimler-Benz Group and Chrysler, the conservative Nissan began negotiations with the two.However, after a few tentative meetings, it was the scorn of then-Chrysler CEO Eaton.However, Ghosn had a different idea at the time and hoped that Renault would take Nissan seriously.Ghosn was born with the ability to return from death.In the second oil crisis, Ghosn pulled Michelin out of the loss-making muddle and became Michelin Brazil’s CEO at the age of 31.In 1996, he went to Paris to serve as Vice President of Renault.In less than three years, Ghosn not only rescued Renault, which had lost $ 1 billion at that time, but also led Renault to reduce its operating costs by nearly 3 billion euros to make it profitable again.And this time, like fate in life, Ghosn and Nissan ’s destiny gears are slowly opening.It is a new battlefield, a new legend.First, in order to formulate a Nissan revival plan from 2000 to 2005, Ghosn employed 200 people to form nine cross-functional teams (CFTs) to solve business problems, and proposed a solution to revive Nissan, thereby choosing to rely on Nissan employees instead ofExternal consultant.He once said, “Make sure you focus on your people. Stimulate their enthusiasm and ownership, and you can create miracles.” Ghosn took a tour of Nissan after he took office, and he came to the production workshop, employee cafeteria, and dealerThe Hai branch, listening to each employee’s suggestions for Nissan’s revival, interviewed more than 2,000 people.And through a series of propaganda, such as the master of destiny, finally, many people felt the master spirit of change, Nissan began to turn the sky.Driven by Ghosn’s “Nissan Revival Plan” (NRP).The company started the reversal at an alarming rate, and it took only two years to turn a profit.In fiscal year 2000, Nissan achieved a profit of $ 2.7 billion.In 4 years, the company’s 2 trillion yen of debt was fully paid off.Many economists see this as one of the most dramatic corporate twists in history.For a time, Ghosn’s powerful people were prominent and moved to Kyoto, and comics about Ghosn and Nissan’s transformation appeared on the streets of Japan.Ghosn’s achievements in revitalizing Nissan even attracted the attention of Emperor Akihito, and awarded the Blue Ribbon Japan Medal in 2004. In the same year, he was named the 2003 Person of the Year by Fortune Magazine.In 2005, Ghosn succeeded Louis Schweitzer as Nissan’s partner and CEO of Renault.In December 2016, Mitsubishi Motors received investment from Nissan at the time of the scandal of falsification of emissions data. Ghosn also served as Chairman of Mitsubishi Motors, and Renault, Nissan, and Mitsubishi Motors formed an alliance.At this point, Carlos Ghosn, known as the “Czar of Cars” by the industry, has served as the chairman of three global car companies and is one of the most powerful people in the automotive industry.In the past, the “honeymoon period”, Renault and Nissan Nissan have started 2017. Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi Alliance light vehicle sales reached 10.61 million units, beating Volkswagen in one fell swoop and winning the world’s top spot in light vehicle sales.In September 2017, the Alliance announced the “Alliance 2022” plan.By the end of the plan, the annual synergy would be doubled to 10 billion euros.To fulfill this vision, Carlos Ghosn believes that Renault, Nissan and Mitsubishi Motors should accelerate cooperation on the one hand.However, the status of “Auto Tsar” is not stable, and Japanese companies have been accumulating dissatisfaction with Ghosn.Ghosn is both a savior and a “hangman” for Nissan.Under the cost reduction policy, tens of thousands of Nissan employees were laid off, but he received 2 billion yen in wages each year, “killing the Japanese and fattening the French”.More importantly, the Japanese side is worried that the in-depth cooperation of the alliance or even the merger will “de-Japaneseize” Nissan and Mitsubishi, which they are not willing to see.Renault owns a large number of voting rights for Nissan and its Nissan board seat (with Nissan non-voting to buy Renault shares), and Renault’s largest single shareholder is the French government.This status of handing over decision-making power to the French government has greatly exacerbated internal dissatisfaction with Nissan and Japan over the terms of the alliance.In addition, things are wrong, and the Nissan, who was ill at the time, has grown richer now.In 2018, Nissan sold 5.8 million vehicles, up from Renault’s 3.8 million.As of November 19, 2018, the market value of Nissan reached 4.24 trillion yen, while Renault’s was 17.465 billion euros (about 2.25 trillion yen).To make matters worse, in order to strengthen the control of French shareholders over French companies, France passed the Florange Act in 2014, which automatically doubled the voting rights of long-term shareholders and made the French government 15% in Renault.Shares have significantly greater voting rights and control.Although Ghosn also tried to take measures to withdraw from the Florange Act, the French government bought an additional 1.23 billion euros of Renault stock in the short term to enable it to defeat the opt-out.This move made Nissan’s alliance with Renault shaky.Hiroto Saikawa, Nissan’s vice president, threatened that unless Renault sells its stake in Nissan Motors (no longer holding Nissan) and renounces control of the alliance, Nissan will withdraw from the alliance.But Macron and the French government don’t care, they think they can reach an agreement with Ghosn.Renault and Nissan want to break up, Ghosn becomes “scapegoat”?On January 8th, 2020, Ghosn stated at the press conference that Nissan did not want the French to point his finger at him, and he would drive me away.Ghosn’s memory should float back to Tokyo on November 19, 2018, when it turned cloudy to light rain.At 4 pm, Nissan Chairman Carlos Ghosn stepped out of a passenger plane that landed at Haneda Airport.The wind of more than 10 degrees in the early winter had a little chill on his face, and then two people who searched the headquarters of the Tokyo local prosecutor’s office took him directly from the exit.Carlos Ghosn, a former Nissan savior, became a prisoner on the Japanese soil: arrested by the special search department of the Tokyo local prosecutor’s office for allegedly underreporting his own remuneration and violating the Financial Products Trading Act.But Ghosn has consistently denied all prosecutions, and issued a statement through his lawyer saying “I have been wronged and will strongly defend through a fair trial.”On December 4, 2018, the special search department of the Tokyo Local Prosecutor’s Office decided to arrest Ghosn again, because the prosecution suspected that he understated a total of about 4 billion yen (about 240 million yuan) from 2015 to 2018.Pay.On December 21 of the same year, the special search department of the Tokyo local prosecutor’s office arrested Ghosn again for allegedly passing on losses from private investment to Nissan Motors in 2008, guilty of “special malfeasance” under the Company Law.On the afternoon of March 6, 2019, Ghosn was released on bail after paying $ 9 million, ending a 108-day detention period.After being released on bail, Ghosn tweeted on April 3 stating that he would hold a press conference on April 11.One day later, on April 4, 2019, Ghosn was arrested again on the grounds that he was suspected of misappropriating the funds paid by Nissan to the sales agency in Oman, the Middle East, which caused Nissan a total loss of about 563 million yen.According to the Japan Broadcasting Association (NHK), Ghosn issued a statement through one of his representatives saying: “The arrest of me this morning was arbitrary and arbitrary.” He said: “Why arrest me? Is it for me to yield? II will not yield, I am innocent, and have no basis for my prosecutions and allegations. “Ghosn also said in the statement:” After 108 days of wrongful imprisonment, my biggest hope today is to be fair, and I originally plannedTell me my story at a press conference next week. But by arresting me again, the prosecutor temporarily gave me no chance, but I’m sure it will eventually come to light. I believe that if I tried fairly, I would be provenIt is innocent. “At this point, Ghosn has been arrested 4 times in total, and the Tokyo prosecutors have” rearrested “Ghosn almost every time his detention period is approaching, which has caused Ghosn’s detention period to be reset.Or extended.In order to be released, he paid a total of 1.5 billion yen (about 96 million yuan) bail.On January 8, 2020, Ghosn, who successfully fled, claimed that he fled Japan because of an unjust trial in Japan. He saw no hope and even worried that he might die in Japan like this.Now fleeing Japan, Ghosn believes he can prove innocence and return to normal.”I will continue to fight, and I will put together all the evidence to prove that I have made a lot of contributions to the automotive industry. I am not a dictator.”After the separation, Nissan’s life is not as good as after Ghosn’s arrest, is Nissan happy? However, it is not. Nissan’s internal turmoil, its brand is seriously damaged, and its operating income and profits are declining.The third quarter (October-December) performance report shows that Nissan ’s global sales this quarter fell 18% to 2.5 trillion yen, and the company ’s operating profit was nearly 23 billion yen, far lower than analystsThe average expected 59 billion yen. Of particular concern is that Nissan Motors posted a net loss of 26.1 billion yen in the third quarter. In the fiscal year ending March, annual profits fell to less than half of Nissan’s previous year’s revenue,319.1 billion yen ($ 2.9 billion). At the same time, Nissan has once again lowered its operating profit forecast for fiscal year 2019 by 43% to 85 billion yen from the original 150 billion yen. Previously, Nissan Motor Company stated thatBy the end of fiscal 2022, it will reduce global production capacity by 10% and reduce the model lineup by at least 10%. By the end of the fiscal year, more than 6,400 jobs will be abolished at eight unspecified locations and by fiscal 2022There are 6,100. What’s even more ironic is that an internal investigation by Nissan found that the company’s former CEO Hiroto Saikawa and many other executives violated the company’s internal process regulations and obtained unreasonable highOn September 4, Guangxi Nishikawa admitted to reporters that based on “a reward plan during the Ghosn period”, he “wrongly” received rewards that were linked to the performance of Nissan’s stock market, and received excessively high income.Violates Nissan’s rules. He apologized for the incident and said he would refund all excess revenue. Other executives—including senior vice president Hari Nada, who was the main whistleblower against Ghosn—It is said to have been paid an excessively high salary. On September 16, 2019, Mr. Nishikawa’s term ended. In October 2019, Mr. Makoto Uchida, then Senior Vice President of Nissan Motor Co., and President of Dongfeng Motor Co., Ltd., was Nissan.Representative of the executive officer and CEO of the automobile company. In late December, Jun Seki, who was originally considered to be one of Nissan’s new CEO’s strong competitors, resigned as Deputy Chief Operating Officer of Nissan Motor Company.Job, internal turmoil in the company. The bad news is not over. On December 30, 2019, Ghosn fled from Japan to Lebanon and Lebanon on bail. A TV station reported that Ghosn was posing in a group of paramilitary mixed into a bandWith the help of personnel, he escaped from the Tokyo house approved by the court. A press conference was subsequently held, denounced that “Nissan has no future.” Ghosn is still causing more trouble. On February 10th, local time, Ghosn sent to Amsterdam again.The District Court filed a request for disclosure of Nissan and Mitsubishi internal documents, and also filed a compensation of 15 million euros. In response, Nissan Motors filed a civil lawsuit with Ghosn at the District Court in Tokyo, Japan, on February 12, demanding compensation of 100Economic loss of 100 million yen (about 91 million U.S. dollars).Nowadays, many people may miss the “cost killer” from Lebanon that came at the turn of the century. Now that Nissan is delivered to Makoto Uchida, who was born in Japan, whether he can become a savior and lead Nissan’s breakout and rebirth requires time to test..(Editor / Yang Peiqian).
Nissan Memoir: Claiming 10 billion yen, is the former auto giant really happy after breaking up with Ghosn?
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