This article is from WeChat public account “58 industry fund” (ID: amazing58vc), author 58 industry fund Xu Zizhen ([email protected]), Zhang Teng ([email protected]), 36 氪 released with authorization.The original title of this article: Interpretation of China’s Vocational Education Policies | Vocational Education Series Report (3) The article is divided into the following five parts: 1. The “Chinese-style dilemma” that vocational education needs to get rid of urgently.2. Open sect Mingyi: “20 vocational education”, the starting point of change in the new vocational education era.3. Emphasize the height of the law: highlight the status of vocational education and clarify the role of participation.4. Landing rules: Follow-up rules are gradually implemented to provide more incentives for enterprises to participate.5. Several typical cases of school-enterprise cooperation under the guidance of the new policy.The concept of the integration of production and education was first mentioned in the Outline of China’s Education Reform and Development issued by the State Council in 1993.Later, through the “Vocational Education Law” promulgated in 1996, vocational education was defined from the legal level for the first time, and China’s vocational education system was initially established.For more than 20 years, vocational education has gradually been systematically scaled up with the beginning of China’s economic development.Since the State Council issued a decision to vigorously promote the reform and development of vocational education in 2002, vocational education has been ups and downs.Historically, after 2009, the number of vocational education enrollment and school students has been decreasing year by year. In recent years, the employment rate of skilled workers has remained above 1.5, and the employment rate of high-skilled talents has remained above 2.Facing the serious problems of the increasing gap in social technical employment and the coldness of vocational education, from 2017 to 2018, the State Council and the Ministry of Education respectively issued policies for industry-education integration and school-enterprise cooperation, which created a starting point for the industry-education integration system.From 2017 to 2018, the core policies of vocational education were introduced and reviewed. In February 2019, the Ministry of Education issued “20 vocational education”, which gradually kicked off the new policy of vocational education. The notice will increase vocational education to “there is noThe key position of “modernization of education” shows the country’s determination to deepen the reform of vocational education.In 2019, some new vocational education policies were introduced to sort out the “Chinese-style dilemma” that vocational education needs to get rid of. In recent years, the contradiction between the decline in the employment rate of fresh graduates and the increase in the gap of high-quality skilled workers has persisted.Prominent factors restricting the upgrading of China’s industrial structure.According to the “Professional Skills Upgrading Action Plan”, it is estimated that the proportion of skilled workers reaches 25%, China still needs to train at least 30 million new skilled workers.China has 10,340 secondary vocational colleges and 1,423 higher vocational colleges. It is big but not strong, and many but not sophisticated. It is an important pain point after the rapid development of vocational education in China. It is urgent to transform to play its due role to break the situation.The financial status of vocational education “lower-ranking” is insufficient, and the quality of vocational education is not satisfactory.Financial support for vocational education is relatively limited. Take 2017 as an example. In that year, the total investment in higher education nationwide was 1.1 trillion yuan, of which about 200 billion yuan was spent on higher vocational education, accounting for only 18%.However, vocational college students account for about 70% of the total number of students in higher education.Insufficient financial support has made it difficult to improve the running conditions and levels of higher vocational colleges, obsolete teaching materials, delayed courses, and difficult to introduce excellent teachers with both theoretical and practical experience.The lack of technical talents is the most important pain point of the original vocational education.Secondly, in the past, the overall employment and settlement policies were biased towards general higher education. Vocational and technical talents could not solve the problem of career outlets, and they were also closely related to the lack of learning outcomes of technical talents.Enterprises need high-tech talents. The current level of vocational education cannot meet the requirements of enterprises. This is the main reason that the gap of senior skilled workers in China cannot be met. Ordinary students are unwilling to do it. Higher vocational students cannot do it.A major factor in students’ unwillingness to choose a higher vocation.The vocational education advancement system needs to be improved. Although secondary and higher vocational education are both vocational education, the professional catalogs are not unified, and the curriculum setting lacks a systematic and progressive relationship.In terms of admissions policies, general education is relatively strong, and vocational education is relatively marginalized.There are about 4 million people who have enrolled in junior high school each year but have not graduated from junior high school, and those who have not completed high school and vocational education each year. These 4 million people are the hard-to-reach groups in vocational education.However, China’s higher vocational colleges mainly recruit ordinary high school students, and the proportion of secondary vocational college admissions accounts for less than 15%.As a result, there is a huge gap between vocational education at each level, and it is impossible to produce a consistent high-skilled education for vocational talents.Mutual constraints between traditional industrial structure and vocational education Most of the traditional industries in China that require skilled workers have low profits, limited skills for basic skilled workers, limited income levels, and limited talent development channels, which has made the overall appeal of vocational education insufficient.With the advent of Industry 4.0, China’s traditional manufacturing industry has gradually transformed into digitalization and informatization. After the transformation, the basic technical work has formed a great innovation at the original level, while the corresponding technology popularization has not been taught in schools.In 2020, the new-generation information technology industry is expected to have a talent gap of about 7.5 million people, and high-end CNC machine tools and robots are expected to have a talent gap of 3 million people.Because the manufacturing industry is facing a huge talent gap, it also highlights the importance of vocational education missions. It is urgent to optimize the talent supply structure according to industry and market changes, and precisely match the talent needs in key areas.The original school-enterprise integration only stayed in policy guidance, and did not bring obvious “benefits” to the enterprise in practice, and a community of interests based on market mechanisms had not yet been formed, resulting in insufficient motivation for enterprises to run schools and participate in vocational education.Enterprises have to operate and pay taxes, and it is actually very difficult for enterprises to unilaterally require them to assume educational responsibilities.Opening sect: “20 vocational education”, the starting point of the new vocational education era “20 vocational education” is divided into 7 major sections, 20 small sections, from the system design to the detailed plan, to address the historical pain points of vocational educationAll-round reform is envisaged.The plan contains five major contents: the transition from general undergraduate colleges to application-oriented colleges promotes the high-quality development of higher vocational education, the teaching conditions of vocational colleges have basically reached the standards, the high-level applied talent training system is improved, and a large number of ordinary undergraduate colleges are transformed into application colleges.School, built 50 high-level higher vocational colleges and 150 backbone majors.The construction of a “double-teacher” teacher team Since 2019, professional teacher recruitment in vocational colleges and applied undergraduate colleges will pay more attention to teachers’ professional practice capabilities. In principle, they will have more than 3 years of relevant work experience in enterprises and higher vocational levels.Screening of personnel with academic qualifications and gradual suspension of recruitment from fresh graduates.At present, there are 1.332 million full-time teachers in vocational schools in China, of which 834,000 are full-time teachers in secondary schools and 498,000 are full-time teachers in higher vocational schools.The total number of “double-teacher” teachers is 455,600, of which 264,200 are secondary vocational schools, accounting for 31.48% of full-time teachers; 191,400 are higher vocational schools, accounting for 39.70% of full-time teachers.It is planned that by 2022, “dual teacher” teachers will account for more than 50% of the total number of professional course teachers, and a group of national-level vocational education innovation teams will be established by major.Piloting the 1 + X certificate system The “1 + X” certificate system is the “educational certificate + several homeownership skill level certificates” system. The pilot program is planned to begin in 2019. It is mainly to encourage students to obtain more vocational college education while obtaining moreMultiple professional skills certificates, improve skills, and alleviate social structural employment contradictions.The implementation of the “Extra High Plan” is the key plan for the professional construction of high-level higher vocational schools with Chinese characteristics, and the construction of a group of higher vocational schools and key specialties that can lead the reform, have Chinese characteristics, and support social development.Constructing a multi-school running pattern Through 5 to 10 years, change the pattern of government-orientated and social multi-school running under vocational education, from scale expansion to improving quality, encourage social enterprise participation, and build distinctive professional education to stimulateVocational education lies in the vitality of the integration of enterprises.Emphasize the height of the law: highlight the status of vocational education, and clearly participate in the role. On December 5, 2019, the Ministry of Education publicly solicited opinions on the Revised Draft of the Vocational Education Law of the People’s Republic of China (Consultation Draft).The bill takes the “vocational education system” as the second chapter, and immediately follows the “general rules”, which shows its importance. For a considerable period of time in the future, the construction of the vocational education system will become one of the important tasks of the reform and development of vocational education.Strengthen the vocational education governance system.Regarding external management institutions, the “Inter-Ministerial Joint Meeting System of Vocational Education Work of the State Council” was raised to the legal level, giving it the right to coordinate national vocational education work and decision-making; establishing a “National Vocational Education Guidance Advisory Committee” to guide follow-up vocational education assessment,Conduct of evaluation.Regarding the school’s own internal management, vocational schools are required to set up a “council” as the school’s advisory and supervisory agency to participate in school management.In addition, schools and social training institutions should establish education quality evaluation and guarantee systems, involve enterprises in evaluations, and disclose relevant information in a timely manner and accept social supervision.Clearly reward enterprises for participating in vocational education.The revised draft newly added that the state should establish a system for the recognition of enterprises integrating production and education.The clarification of the vocational education responsibilities of industry enterprises is a major progress in this amendment. While industry enterprises are required to assume vocational education responsibilities, corresponding economic benefits have also been compensated.Enterprises that meet the requirements for vocational education can deduct education surcharges and local education surcharges in proportion to the amount of investment.Enterprises that deeply participate in the integration of production and education, school-enterprise cooperation, and have the effect of leading demonstration should be rewarded.Open up the vocational education development channel.Clarify the framework of the vocational education system from the bottom up, from compulsory education to junior colleges and undergraduates, and at the same time promote the continuous training of vocational education for middle and higher education and implement a flexible academic system.Detailed rules for implementation: The follow-up rules are gradually implemented to provide enterprises with more participation to encourage the opening of the “Twenty Articles of Vocational Education” at the beginning of the year, and put forward that “vocational education and general education are two different types of education and have equal importance.” The core of vocational educationIt is undoubtedly the integration of production and education. The pain point is that the enterprises at the industrial end are not enthusiastic in participating in vocational education, and the school capacity at the teaching end is not enough.In this regard, the follow-up policy has been continuously refined and implemented, and both sides have provided heavy incentives.The scale of school-side training has been expanded.Support vocational colleges to carry out subsidized training, and expand the training scale for employees, key employment groups and poor labor.Pilot work on the system of “academic certificate + several vocational skill level certificates” was launched in colleges and universities.Performance appraisal is skewed.When verifying the total performance of vocational colleges, it is preferred to the units that undertake vocational skills training.Vocational colleges are allowed to incorporate a certain percentage of training revenue into the school’s public funds, and the school training workload can be converted into a full-time student training workload according to a certain percentage.Income from vocational colleges, applied undergraduate universities, school-enterprise cooperation, technical services, social training, and self-employed enterprises can be used as a source of performance wages in a certain proportion.The training path of “Double Teachers” is clear.Establish a one-year education apprenticeship for new teachers and a three-year enterprise practice system, and focus on training young key teachers through follow-up visits and post-employment practices.An overseas training program for vocational college teacher teams is implemented, and 1,000 key teachers of teaching innovation are sent to Germany and other countries each year to learn advanced international “dual system” vocational education experience.Guaranteed treatment for skilled teachers.In the internal distribution of vocational colleges, they should lean towards the front-line teachers who undertake vocational skills training to ensure their reasonable treatment.Work related to school-enterprise cooperation can be included in performance pay in a certain proportion.The rewards for the conversion of scientific and technological achievements obtained by teachers in accordance with the law are not included in performance wages or in the base of the total unit salary. [58 Industry Fund Perspective] Consultation Draft on Vocational Education Bill, Implementation Plan for Reform of the Construction of a “Double-Teacher” Teacher Team for Vocational Education, and Other Related DetailsAll of them proposed the continuous training of theoretical and practical abilities of vocational education teachers, and planned to set up a teacher training base to strengthen professional teacher training; qualified enterprise management personnel, and personnel with professional knowledge and skills, after corresponding education and teachingAbility training, teacher qualification, can be a professional vocational education teacher; encourage industry companies to jointly participate in vocational education teacher training and training.At present, teacher training is mainly focused on teacher qualification certification training. In the future, it is expected to expand into vocational education teachers’ post-service training through cooperation with enterprises, and have the opportunity to form leading enterprises in the field through the accumulation of knowledge maps and teacher traffic accumulation in horizontal industries.For enterprises, social training and evaluation institutions are encouraged to carry out vocational skills training and evaluation.Support third-party training and evaluation institutions to establish an industry exchange platform.Private vocational training and evaluation institutions enjoy the same treatment as government-run similar institutions in terms of government services, school-enterprise cooperation, and construction of training bases.Implement vocational training subsidies.Vocational training subsidies will be given to college graduates and enterprise employees.Qualified enterprise employees participate in pre-job training, safety skills training and other technician training, and are subsidized in accordance with regulations.Employees participating in the enterprise’s new apprenticeship training are given vocational training subsidies of more than 4,000 yuan per person per year, which are used by the enterprise for apprenticeship training.Central and local governments have increased their overall funding support.Local governments at all levels will allocate a certain percentage of employment subsidy funds, local talent funds, and industry and industry development funds for vocational skills training, and 100 billion yuan from the balance of the unemployment insurance fund, which will be used for vocational skills upgrading..Enterprises should fully collect and use staff education funds in accordance with relevant regulations, of which more than 60% is used for front-line staff training and can be used for enterprise “teachers and apprentices” subsidies.Tax reduction policy for enterprise employees’ education funds.Where possible, funds can be arranged to support basic work such as the development of vocational skills training materials, teacher training, teaching reform, and vocational skills competitions, as well as rewards for mobilization of training organizations.Increased autonomy in local training subsidy adjustments.For enterprises that conduct training or training institutions for project-based training, a certain percentage of training subsidy funds may be allocated in advance, and the specific proportion shall be determined by each locality.Eligible workers who have obtained certificates (vocational qualification certificates, training qualification certificates, etc.) after attending training at their place of residence, habitual residence, or job search employment place will be given vocational training subsidies in accordance with regulations. In principle, each person can enjoy no more than 3 times per year, But the same profession and the same level cannot be enjoyed repeatedly.Local governments at all levels can make appropriate autonomous adjustments to subsidy standards or channels based on the actual principles.[58 Industry Fund Perspective] In October this year, the National Development and Reform Commission issued the “Implementation Plan for the Pilot Implementation of National Industry-Education Integration Construction.” The first batch of 20 pilot cities were launched in an attempt to implement specific industrial-education integration cities and fiscal and taxation supporting policies.Pilot enterprises set up vocational education, and qualified investments will be deducted from the current year’s payable education surcharge and local surcharge at a rate of 30% of the prescribed investment amount.Pilot enterprises that have achieved significant results can be included in the certification directory of the production-education integration enterprise.According to the author and the team, the government’s incentive measures mainly adopt the combination of “office / teaching land + tax + subsidies”. In view of the current policy landing period, review and approve the standard identification and subsidy screening criteria for the “1 + X” project integrating production and educationOther practical standards are still unclear, and incentives are relatively cautious.After the initial exploration phase, it is expected that mature standards will be formed in the middle and late 2020s. By then, vocational training institutions with standardized teaching and research systems and efficient channel management capabilities will have more opportunities to quickly open up cooperation with leading companies and gain market share by replicating standardized cooperation models..Several typical cases of school-enterprise cooperation under the guidance of the new policy. Enterprise new apprenticeship system. Jiangsu Province: Enterprise new apprenticeship work plan. The apprenticeship system has been included in the new clauses of the vocational education bill. It clearly states that the state encourages the apprenticeship system.If enterprises and vocational schools jointly recruit students, they should be trained in a combination of work and study.Recruitment means enrollment, enrollment means entering the school, and joint training by both enterprises and schools.The main body of the new apprenticeship system of enterprises is enterprises, and the training objects are new recruits and transfers of skilled positions who have signed labor contracts with enterprises for more than one year. Colleges and universities are involved. Not only the courses are based on the needs of the enterprise, but more importantly,”For companies, the new apprentices themselves are already employees of the company and have a stronger sense of belonging. Adopt a flexible academic system to encourage apprentices to use their spare time to complete their studies in stages, according to the usual workshop, weekend class, and assist the upper-line study.Arrange courses in principle. For apprentices, during the study and training period, the company normally calculates and pays wages, and there is an opportunity for salary increase after obtaining a qualification certificate. For corporate mentors, although the workload is increased, the company will give certainThe apprentice allowance, and the instructors who passed the assessment have a preference for appraisal and appraisal, and title evaluation, so they are also more enthusiastic.The Ministry of Human Resources, Social Security and the Ministry of Finance grants vocational training subsidies ranging from 4,000 to 8,000 yuan per person per year to companies conducting apprenticeship training, which can solve 60% of the company’s original training costs. Originally, even without subsidies, companies still had to train technicians.Therefore, it is natural for companies to cover part of government subsidies.”Double Teachers” Technical Education and Training Cooperative System Chinalco Group: Helping Vocational Education Teachers Improve Their Practical Capabilities The Group provides full-time teachers with bases for practical teaching in related professional colleges. The company is equipped with specialized technical personnel to connect with full-time teachers.Ways to improve teachers’ practice and teaching ability: (1) Use winter and summer vacations to enter corporate practice.Full-time teachers use the winter and summer vacations to practice in the member companies of the group, and each period of time is in principle not less than one month; (2) Use spare time to enter the practice of the company.Teachers use business time to enter the enterprise and conduct field study and study of new processes, new equipment, and new methods; (3) bring topics to enterprise practice.The school can hire the company’s technical backbone as the college’s technical mentor and guest professor, and discuss the talent training plan with the college’s full-time teachers, and jointly develop curriculum.Third-party social organization vocational education and training platform Caibei Education: Provide online continuing education for employees by building an internal training system based on the “big energy + big transportation” industry, unite the industry’s leading enterprises and institutions, and work together to build a vertical industryKnowledge map and course content, mining corporate knowledge, constructing systematic training content, realizing intelligent knowledge management and precise matching of people and knowledge, completing advanced skills and building an enterprise talent pool to help enterprises accurately select employment personnel.Through the “Internet +” method, we provide employees with various training contents such as graphics, photography, animation, etc., to help new employees who lack practical experience to quickly acquire professional skills, and to help employees with work experience to achieve on-the-job training and continue to learn new technologies..As of the beginning of 2018, nearly 800 companies have cooperated and 53,000 courses have been launched on the platform.As a third-party social training institution, he has participated in the revision of occupational standards in a number of industries, including the revision of occupational standards by the China City Gas Association, and research on the certification system and implementation plan of the urban rail transit system of the Ministry of Transport.[58 Industry Fund Perspective] The formulation and implementation of China’s vocational education policies are still under the joint management of the two departments of the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, and the division of powers and responsibilities of the competent departments is still being further implemented.At present, the intensive introduction of this round of policies is still employment-oriented, people’s livelihood-oriented, and policy tilt and subsidy distribution are still employment-oriented. Therefore, there will be many opportunities such as “skill upgrading, job transfer and retraining, and unemployment and reemployment.”On the other hand, according to the author and the team, at the level of higher vocational education and undergraduate education, the details of the implementation of the civil promotion law will be implemented in the near future. At that time, profit-making institutions will have broader autonomy and their capital paths will be clearer.This report is the third in a series of 58 industry fund vocational education reports. We will continue to pay attention to new developments and opportunities in the vocational education industry, and share them with you as soon as possible, so stay tuned..
Interpretation of Chinese Vocational Education Policy
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