Editor’s note: This article is from WeChat public account “Knock on the Blackboard” (ID: qiaoheiban8), author Zhang Chao, 36 氪 Published with permission.In the past November, a big event happened in the Go world. Former world champion and Korean chess player Lee Shi-Shi announced the end of his 24-year career and officially retired.This decision surprised many people. After all, Li Shishi is only 36 years old, and he is still playing.Li Shishi himself explained to the South Korean media that he chose to retire because AI (artificial intelligence) was invincible.In 2016, Li Shishi engaged in a man-machine battle with Google Go’s AI program AlphaGo (Alpha Dog), losing 1 to 4, becoming the first human Go world champion defeated by Alpha Dog.”Even if I rank first, there will be a computer that cannot be defeated. With the debut of AI in the Go game, I realized that even if I strive to become the first place, I will not be the top …” Li ShishiSay.CNN reports that Li Shishi retired because AI “cannot be defeated.” It defeated the top players in the professional human game Go player ten years in advance and was forced to retire by an AI program. This is probably the first time in history.Alpha Dog was developed by a team led by Google’s DeepMind Co-founder and CEO Demis Hazabis.DeepMind’s goal is to create general-purpose artificial intelligence. Hazabis proposes to start with the AI program of Go.Why did DeepMind Co-founder and CEO Demis Hazabis choose Go?Hazabis said in a public speech that the virtual environment of the game is an excellent platform for the development and testing of artificial intelligence algorithms, and Go is one of the most complex games designed by humans. Beating professional players on Go is artificial.A long and huge challenge for intelligent research.So, the Alpha Dog came. Its main principle is deep learning technology. The core is deep neural network. The value network is used to calculate the situation, and the strategy network is used to choose the next one.The name is AlphaGo, and there is also Google’s careful thinking behind it.The technology behind Alpha Dog Alpha is the first letter of the Greek alphabet, which has the meaning of the first and the beginning, and go is the Japanese name for Go, because modern Go’s rank system and professionalism are developed from Japan.So, Google ’s AlphaGo actually has an implicit meaning of “Go first in the world”.After the Alpha Dog was developed, DeepMind first aimed at the second stage of European Go champion Fan Wei. Born in China, Fan went to Paris after being 18 years old and won the European Go Championship in 2013-2015.In October 2015, Alpha Dog and Fan Ye battled, defeating Fan Ye with a 5-0 record. This is the first time in the history of the AI program to defeat a human professional Go player without letting it go. This was originally consideredIt is an achievement that artificial intelligence can only achieve in 10 years.The Alpha Dog defeated Fan Shi with a 5-0 record and made Li Shishi injured 4-1. Next, DeepMind chose the world champion Li Shishi as the challenge object.”We chose Li Shishi because we wanted to find a legendary and historical chess player, someone who has been recognized as the strongest player in the past ten years. Choose Li Shishi to play against the world of artificial intelligence and the world of Go.This is a major moment. Before that, the Alpha Dog had overcome all the challenges to it, but after it played against the world’s top chess player like Li Shishi, everyone will know the true strength of the Alpha Dog. “HazabisSaid the reasons for choosing Li Shishi.DeepMind chose to challenge the world champion Li Shishi. Facing the challenge of DeepMind, Li Shishi also gladly took part in the competition in March 2016.At that time, Li Shishi was standing at the top of the Go world. He won 18 world championships in important Go tournaments such as the Fujitsu Cup, Chunlan Cup, Samsung Cup, and Nongshim Cup. He played against top players such as Guli and Chang Hao in China.Sometimes, there are often wins.At the conference conference, Li Shishi also appeared very confident in the interview. “I don’t want to be too conceited, but I still feel that I have an advantage. Alpha Dog played against the level of the chess player in October 2015. Follow me.It ’s not a degree. Considering that only a few months have passed, I do n’t think it can catch up with my level. I hope the result will be that I win 5 to 0 or 4 to 1. So my key point isMake sure you don’t lose a game. “Li Shishi was confident before the start of the game. However, Li Shishi guessed the score and did not guess the end result, and he ended up losing 1 to 4 in the end.In the first game, Li Shishi took the lead in the black game. At the beginning, the format was good, but when everyone thought that the chess game was garbage time, Li Shishi made a small mistake. Alpha Dog played two strong hands and the situation reversed.In the end Li Shishi conceded.In the second game of Li Shishi’s game with Alpha Dog, although Alpha Dog played a battle method that made the masters shout “Big Smelly Chess”, the situation was already under its control. In the end, Li Shishi ran out of time and Alpha Dog defeated againLi Shishi.In the third game, Li Shishi tested the opening attack, life and death, and robberies, but the Alpha Dog has always been dominant, and Li Shishi finally lost.In the fourth game, after Li Shishi’s 78th hand, the Alpha Dog began to make mistakes and produced a series of crash reactions. In the end, Li Shishi won the game.After the game, public opinion generally commented that because Li Shishi took a step in the 78th move that the computer had never thought of before, the Alpha Dog could not skip this problem and had to solve it, which caused great inconvenience to its calculation.Hazabis and Li Shishi also believe that the 78th move is equivalent to hitting the BUG of the Alpha Dog, and it is this game that makes Li Shishi the only human chess player to defeat the Alpha Dog.Li Shishi found the Alpha Dog’s “BUG” in the 78th move in the fourth game. Both sides fell into a long hard battle. Alpha Dog also entered the countdown phase for the first time. In the event of an extremely complicated situation, Alpha Dog still relied on a weakThe advantage wins.Without Alpha Dog and Go AI After Li Shishi lost to Alpha Dog in the first game, Ke Jie once tweeted, “Even if Alpha Dog defeated Li Shishi, it won’t win me.” Ke Jie’s Weibo screenshot at the time19-year-old Ke Jie is a talented Chinese chess player, rising from four to nine. At the age of 17, he ranked first in the world. His record with Li Shishi was 8 wins and 2 losses.Ke Jie’s “challenge” was answered.In May 2017, Ke Jie and Alpha Dog played at the same table.The final result was that Ke Jie suffered a terrible defeat of the Alpha Dog’s “triple kill”. In the third game, Ke Jie even cried after leaving the game for 20 minutes.In May 2018, Ke Jie recalled a game with Alpha Dog in a speech.”After I was led by Alpha Dog 2-0, I stayed awake all night. Because I keep thinking about how I can win it, will there be any loopholes, even if I pick a plate! In the third setI fight with it in the middle of the game! But at the early stage of layout, I made a very fatal mistake. To the middle of the game, I tried hard to find opportunities, but the Alpha Dog was so perfect, it made me outA cold move made me feel desperate. I could no longer control my emotions, rushed out of the game room, and found a cry in an unoccupied corner. Because the upcoming 3 to 0, such aThe ending is too desperate for me. “Ke Jie wept bitterly in the game against Alpha Dog. After ending the battle with Ke Jie, DeepMind announced that Alpha Dog will no longer participate in the Go game and will further explore the medical field.Use artificial intelligence technology to overcome various problems in modern medicine.However, the AI in Go has not disappeared due to the withdrawal of the Alpha Dog. Li Shishi announced that he will continue the commemorative match after he announced his retirement. He will go up and down with the Korean Go AI “HanDol” (HAN Dou) on December 18-21 this year.Fan chess.HanDol is a program developed by South Korea’s NHN Entertainment. Although it was only born in 2018, it defeated the current South Korea’s No. 1 Shin Shin-chan in the man-machine battle on January 23 this year.Go player.”HanDol” developers are interviewed. This will be the first time that human chess players will compete with AI. This is because the gap between the top human players and AI is generally considered to be between the second and the third.It’s just that the actual gap between human chess players and AI cannot be measured specifically because there has never been an actual match.According to the rules of this game, AI will let Li Shishi second son in the first game.If Li Shishi loses the first game, the AI in the second game will let the third son.If Li Shishi loses in the first two games, the third round of AI will let the fourth son.Do we still need humans to participate in Go? After Alpha Dog defeated the world’s top Go masters such as Li Shishi and Ke Jie, some people began to worry on the Internet. In simple areas such as Go and artistic creation, do we no longer need humans to participate??In fact, industry insiders in related fields have already discussed similar topics for a long time. For example, in the Go world, some people in the industry said that the professional chess industry has almost accepted “Go AI is better than humans” and “Human players can learn from Go AI”And other ideas, even human beings can no longer represent the highest level of Go itself, have also been recognized.Ke Jie acknowledges that Alpha Dogs are powerful, but this does not mean that humans will not be needed in these areas in the future, or that human races will be meaningless.On the one hand, Go AI has discovered a lot of new moves, eliminated some human mindsets, improved human cognition of Go, and improved human skills and skills when learning from AI.On the other hand, the competition between human beings is to challenge human beings themselves, not to win over machines and programs. This is just like a car and an airplane, and human beings are still running.Also threatened by AI is the field of artistic creation.In 2016, a neural network named “DeepBach” created 2503 “like” Bach hymns; in 2018, an AI program of a French art team created an “Edmond de Belamy”Male portraits were sold by Christie’s for a high price of $ 432,500 (plus commissions and other fees) … AI-created male portraits of “Edmond de Belamy”. However, human artistic creation, “creativity” and “imagination”It is the most unique and important part. Human “creativity” and “imagination” cannot be described by mathematical formulas, and therefore cannot be quantified for calculation. AI programs have human divergent “creativity” and “imagination””Before, human art could not be replaced at all.After all, Li Shishi’s heart is not AI, but himself.(Cover image from Pexels).
Li Shishi’s retirement is really because he can’t get out of the shadow of losing to Alpha Dog?