Editor’s Note: This article is from WeChat public account “AIDaily” (ID: AIDaily), author A Bao, 36 氪 authorized to release.Recently, China Unicom and China Telecom announced that they have signed the “5G Network Co-construction and Sharing Framework Cooperation Agreement”, and the two sides will cooperate to build a 5G access network nationwide.Such a sudden announcement of the official announcement is undoubtedly a tsunami-like impact on the 5G market.In the 4G era, the original three-legged situation of mobile, China Unicom and telecommunications was rewritten.The card position war ahead of the three PK changes two “potential” against the three major operators is the core player of the 5G infrastructure, the track players, is also the first member to get a license.With the joint efforts of China Unicom Telecom, the three PKs became the confrontation between the two forces.The two operators built a 5G network, which is almost unprecedented in the history of communications.The combination of China Unicom Telecom seems to be surprising, and it is reasonable.Judging from the earlier information, Wang Xiaochu, chairman of China Unicom, had previously said: Regarding 5G, the future is not to cooperate with mobile or telecommunications.In the end, China Unicom chose a telecom that was closer in magnitude.From the distribution of 5G network investment of the three major operators in 2019, we can see that there are still many gaps in the investment of 5G: China Mobile is expected to invest 24 billion yuan to build 50,000 base stations nationwide; China Unicom expectsWe will invest 8 billion yuan to build 40,000 base stations; China Telecom will invest about 9 billion yuan and build 40,000 base stations by the end of the year.Different investment quotas will naturally lead to different results. Up to now, China Mobile has built more than 20,000 5G base stations in 52 major cities across the country, and has launched 5G network construction in more than 300 cities across the country. It is expected to exceed 50 in 2019.The city realizes 5G commercial services.By July of this year, 38,000 base stations of 5G base stations have been built nationwide.It shows that the number of Unicom Telecom’s hands-on cooperation has not yet been moved.In addition, Han Xia, director of the Information and Communication Administration of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, revealed that China is expected to build more than 50,000 5G base stations in 50 cities by 2019.According to this data, the 5G base stations planned by China Unicom and China Telecom in 2019 will be at the same level as China Mobile.According to the 2019 interim financial report data, the net cash outflow from China Mobile’s investment activities is about 84.8 billion yuan, the net cash outflow from China Telecom’s investment activities is about 33.2 billion yuan, and the net cash outflow from China Unicom’s investment activities is about 27.1 billion yuan.Compared with mobile, the lack of cash flow is bound to cause shortcomings, and “financial alliance” has become one of the important factors for the cooperation between China Unicom and telecommunications.Unicom + Telecom can quickly reach a situation of conflict with mobile in the 5G market in the short term.Unicom Telecom joined hands to reduce the 30% growth rate. Unicom Telecom’s 5G news was released. The two stocks rose by 3-5%.Explain that the market is optimistic about the move, and the core point of view is that the two companies will “reduce cost and increase efficiency” in the 5G layout.The investment in network construction in the early stage of 5G is very large, especially when the three major operators are facing different levels of performance decline. Nowadays, the construction of the network can save costs, accelerate the completion of 5G network construction, and participate in the market.In the war, it is a good strategy.Industry data forecast: The construction cost of domestic 5G will reach 3.2 trillion yuan, 3-4 times the cost of 4G.Unicom Telecom’s 5G network can achieve seamless alien roaming, and the base station density and area that need to be built can theoretically be reduced to about half of the original. Brokers predict that the number of base stations that need to be built may be reduced by about 30%..In fact, the continuous 5G frequency sharing between the two parties helps to reduce the 5G network construction and operation and maintenance costs, efficiently realize 5G network coverage, rapidly form 5G service capabilities, enhance the market competitiveness of 5G networks and services, and improve network efficiency and asset operation.Efficiency, to achieve mutual benefit and win-win results.It should be noted that the number of 5G base stations will be 3-4 times that of 4G. According to the data released by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, as of the end of 2018, the total number of domestic 4G base stations has reached 3.72 million.According to this data, the number of 5G base stations will reach 110-105 million.The cost savings for China Unicom and Telecom can be said to have reached an unprecedented height.From a technical point of view, the joint development of China Unicom’s telecoms has occupied the “innate” advantage. Of course, the interpretation of cooperation is only from the perspective of the development of the business, but 5G commercial is a technology after all, and ultimately it must be put to the actual use level.For the user, what is the difference between several 5Gs?First of all, for the user to 5G commercial, all mobile phones support 4G SIM card does not need to be replaced.Therefore, there is no need to change the mobile phone number, which is more than the 3G upgrade to 4G.However, the carrier level does not bother, but users need to replace the 5G-enabled mobile phone to use the 5G network.When talking about the 5G technologies of several operators, they have to say that they have obtained the “spectrum” in the 5G band.As early as 2018, the three major operators have already negotiated.According to public information, China’s current 5G spectrum allocation is as follows. The 200MHz spectrum resources of the most mature 3.5GHz gold band of 5G are attributed to China Telecom and China Unicom respectively. The specific spectrum allocation is that China Telecom has obtained 3.4GHz-3.5GHz.With 100MHz bandwidth resources, China Unicom has obtained a total of 100MHz bandwidth resources from 3.5GHz to 3.6GHz.Although China Mobile did not get the best spectrum resources, it obtained 160MHz spectrum resources in the 2.6GHz (2575MHz~2635MHz) frequency band. Of course, this includes 60MHz existing TD-LTE or 4G frequency band.Possibly, the details of the 3.5 GHz band are not important to most people, but its enabling allows operators to have a large amount of mid-range spectrum on 5G networks.Researchers in Europe and Asia, as well as regulators, have clearly identified the 3.5GHz band as the ideal choice for 5G networks because it provides the perfect combination of wireless signal coverage, wall penetration and bandwidth.It can be said that Unicom and Telecom have gained innate advantages in the 5G frequency band.In contrast, the advantage of China Mobile is that it has been covered by the 4G band base station with mature layout for many years, which has made the mobile station increase the capital and speed in the upgrade of the 5G base station to the 5G base station.The existing TD-LTE, or 4G frequency band, which is 60MHz, is also considered by the industry to be a kind of compensation for mobile. It is also thought that this move makes mobile “smart”.At present, mobile has a large number of TD-LTE devices at 2.6GHz, and there will be speed advantage in 5G construction.In extreme cases, only the antenna feeder system and the main device need to be upgraded. Massive MIMO can greatly improve the 5G coverage capability, and can fully reuse the 4G site and supporting resources to obtain the advantage of rapid network deployment.However, although the 2.6 GHz band has strong capacity and coverage capability, uplink coverage is limited by factors such as terminal device performance and power, resulting in weak uplink coverage.In addition, the mobile 4G is also covered in this frequency band, 4G and 5G mixed network combination, commercial early, but in the long run is obviously not what users want to see.After the post-war battle, the “traffic station” may move 70% of users in the future?As far as the 5G frequency band is concerned, since the industry is in the initial mobile 2.6 GHz band, its outdoor coverage capability is relatively good, while the other two telecoms have obtained 3.4 GHz-3.5 GHz bandwidth resources and the 3.5 GHz-3.6 GHz bandwidth resources obtained by China Unicom.The quality of the signal should take into account the density of nearby base stations.In the case that the number of base stations is equal or not much different, the stability and strength of the mobile signal may be better than the latter. On the other hand, if the number of Unicom Telecom base stations is large, the download speed and stability should be better than the mobile.In addition, in addition to the 3.4GHz-3.5GHz bandwidth resources, the mobile also obtains the 60MHz TD-LTE 4G frequency band, which means that the mobile is dual-band, plus the 4G frequency band and layout originally owned by the mobile, in terms of maturity and coverage.It is said that both have higher advantages, and the dual-band obtained this time can upgrade existing base station equipment faster, and can realize 5G of existing 4G coverage faster than Unicom Telecom.That is to say, in the early stage of 5G commercialization, no matter how mobile has its natural advantages, China Unicom and China Telecom have a tendency to accelerate their catch-up.Aside from the 5G professional technology itself, in terms of actual user usage level, due to the mature advantages of mobile 4G layout in the early stage of 5G, it is sure to provide users with a better use environment on 5G signal coverage.Although the 5G cooperation between China Unicom and China Telecom is a seamless hybrid roaming, for signal base stations, the higher the frequency is theoretically, the higher the frequency is considered, and the higher the base station density to be constructed.Therefore, as long as the corresponding 5G base station coverage is sufficient for mobile and telecommunications, the signal strength and stability can be better than mobile.That is to say, in the early days of the 5G era, the major cities may not be much different, because the three companies will fully deploy base stations.Therefore, the difference will be more reflected in the coverage of suburbs and other places. At present, the advantages of mobile relying on the original 4G base station will be better than Unicom and Telecom in the early stage.At this stage, everyone is vying for the 5G opportunity, but the first machine has already formed.At present, China Mobile has built and installed 3,500+ 5G base stations in Beijing.Before the end of September, China Mobile Beijing will build a 5000+ base station to realize the 5G outdoor basic coverage of the five-ring area north of the South Fourth Ring Road and the key areas of the suburban county.The industry predicts that the price of 5G mobile phones may drop to 2,000 yuan by the end of 2020.At that time, the market pattern of 5G has basically taken shape.We can’t predict the future, so we estimate the distribution of 5G users from the current 4G user stock market.According to the January 30 operating data of the three major operators in 2019, the number of China Mobile subscribers has reached 9.2748 billion; China Unicom has accumulated 223 million subscribers; China Telecom has a total of 247.37 million subscribers.Through the 4G inventory market, we can predict that as long as the 5G deployments do not open a huge gap, existing users will upgrade to 5G over time, which means that mobile will win 70% of the 5G user market.The share is already predictable.Of course, there are still some possibilities for the change. After all, the linkage of Unicom Telecom has obtained the highest signal frequency band.In addition, the cooperation between the two parties will lead to more possibilities, and it is not impossible to fight against the mobile in the 5G market in the future..
Unicom Telecom announced the joint construction, the 5G market started the card position