编者按：本文来自微信公众号“甲方研究社”（ID：jiafangribao），作者：甲方研究社，独家首发于腾讯科技，未经授权，不得转载。36氪经授权转载。中低端商品微博的利润率难以满足HTC的胃口，表现在市场选择上，HTC主攻欧美日高端市场，却忽略中低端消费市场。尤其是面对中国市场这个潜力股，HTC却并没有放在心上。权威调研机构IDC数据显示，今年第一季度，在全球市场，华为、OPPO、vivo、小米四家手机厂商的市场份额达到了42%。另外一家研究机构Counterpoint的报告也显示，在中国市场，这四家厂商更是垄断了超过70%的份额。随着华为、OPPO、vivo、小米在国产手机阵营中的地位彻底稳固，留给其他竞争对手的生存空间也越来越少，曾经金立、魅族、酷派等耳熟能详的手机品牌也渐渐走向了没落。甲方研究社近日发起系列策划，复盘国产手机大败局，从这些手机厂商的身影中，总结出宝贵的经验和教训。第四期：HTC坍塌今年5月，HTC发出的一条微博，重新吸引了大家对它的关注。HTC在微博中表示：“出于对HTC中国长期经营策略的考量，我们将暂时关闭HTC手机京东旗舰店和天猫旗舰店。大家仍然可以通过HTC官方商城和HTC VIVE旗舰店，购买HTC智能手机及配件产品。我们也仍将一如既往为大家提供优质的售前和售后服务。 ”全球最早的安卓手机、曾经的安卓机皇，正这样一步步远离我们。尽管凭借HTC U19e的助力，HTC 6月营收为14.61亿新台币（约合人民币3.22亿元），创造了近7个月以来的最好成绩，较上月大幅增长94%。但这并能不代表HTC手机业务的复苏。在最近的股东会上，HTC董事长王雪红只字不提手机业务，而是动员所有部门聚焦VR。时间倒退九年，彼时的王雪红依靠HTC的异军突起问鼎台湾首富。2011年，HTC占全球手机市场的份额高达9.1%，市值攀升至335亿美元，超过上世纪手机巨头诺基亚，仅次于苹果，一跃成为智能手机品牌霸主，那是HTC最风光的时候。但这八年来HTC究竟如何一步一步沦落至此？它的成败又给了我们哪些经验和教训？今天甲方研究社将为您揭秘。HTC发家史HTC最早被熟知的名字是宏达电子，而它的发家史深深地打上了时代的烙印——台湾代工厂的崛起。1997年，台湾首富王永庆之女王雪红与周永明、卓火土共同创办了HTC，意为“High Tech Computer”。成立之初，HTC主要是代工制造搭载Windows CE系统的掌上电脑，但当时并未能打开局面。直到2000年与康柏作生产的iPAQ横空出世。这款掌上电脑在2000年被列为吉尼斯世界纪录里功能最强之PDA。iPAQ的热销让HTC扭亏为盈，成为众多OEM厂商中的翘楚。大树底下好乘凉，由于在前期形成了良好的合作基础，2002年，微软联合HTC推出了全球第一台搭载Windows mobile的Pocket PC。从而在美国市场风生水起，HTC在Windows mobile平台的份额一度高达80%，利润率空前高涨。同年，HTC还推出轰动市场的“多普达686”手机。在彩屏手机还是稀罕物的年代，多普达686集通信、互联网、电脑等功能于一体，不仅能上网冲浪，还可以听MP3、看电影。多普达686对市场的震撼可想而知。The fiery market did not affect Wang Xuehong’s judgment on the nature of the foundry model. After 2004, the profits of the foundry gradually declined. The environment prompted Wang Xuehong to lead HTC to start a self-revolution. In 2006, HTC moved to the road of building its own brand. With the experience of many years of work, HTC launched the HTC Touch and HTC Diamond phones in 2007 and 2008 respectively. Although it is a small test, it is enough to attract attention. In 2008, Google threw an olive branch to HTC. HTC became a member of the “Open Handset Alliance” jointly built by 34 companies. In the same year, HTC launched the world’s first smartphone G1 equipped with Android, which became the first An Android mobile phone brand that competes with the iPhone is also the mobile phone, which has pushed HTC to the peak of the industry. The company’s share price has soared. Relying on the first-mover advantage of Google Android, HTC has expanded its territory. In 2010, HTC’s smartphone shipments were 24.6 million. According to a report by consulting firm Nielsen, HTC ranked second in the global smartphone maker with a market share of 9.1% in 2011, second only to Apple, which has a 29% market share. In the US market, the HTC market share exceeded Apple in the third quarter of 2011. On April 6, 2011, the market value of HTC surged to more than 33.5 billion US dollars, surpassing Nokia and BlackBerry, becoming the world’s second largest mobile phone maker with the market value of Apple, reaching the peak of history. The savage growth of the patented HTC is actually in crisis. In HTC’s most brilliant 2011, it has also become its turning point. In 2011, Apple raised a patent stick on HTC, accusing HTC of violating Apple’s 10 patents and demanding the ban on the sale of HTC products in the United States. In this war, the HTC with insufficient patent reserves unfortunately lost. On December 20, 2011, the US International Trade Commission issued a verdict on Apple and HTC’s patent lawsuit, arguing that HTC infringed a patent on Apple’s iPhone. For all smartphones involved in this patent, since April 19, 2012, HTC mobile phones have officially imposed import bans. Since 2012, Nokia has filed patent litigation against HTC across Europe. Between 2013 and 2014, some HTC mobile phone products were banned in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and other markets, resulting in a significant reduction in their market share in Europe. By 2013, HTC’s mobile phone products had a global market share of less than 2%, falling out of the top ten mobile phone brands. Positive and Apple, Nokia’s patent warfare, not only lost a large litigation costs and settlement funds, consumption of capital base, but also lost the market in Europe and the United States. Relying on first-mover advantage and barbaric growth, HTC can quickly build a strong brand, and can quickly occupy a market. The accumulation of technology cannot be achieved overnight. HTC’s life is always in the hands of others. Compared to Apple, HTC relies on Android without the closed-loop advantage of iOS software and hardware. Compared with Samsung, it can control CPU, flash memory, memory and display in the upstream; midstream covers mobile phone design, brand influence, assembly and manufacturing; downstream has trained a group of sales teams to control 60% of mobile phone parts and components. Production in hand, with vertical mode intensive production, can effectively control costs and production processes. Minimizing external forces, this vertically integrated production capacity is clearly lacking in HTC, which was transformed from a foundry. A striking example is that in August 2010, Samsung refused to supply HTC due to insufficient capacity of AMOLED panels. HTC had to replace the screen supplier of smart phone G7, which brought certain sales to the G7 at that time. The impact. HTC, which started from the foundry, has strong hardware attributes, one that emphasizes the product itself and ignores the ecology that matches it. HTC has never had a layout in cloud services, content delivery, and mobile gaming. Although I used to marry Beats and pushed the Beats phone for a while, I didn’t make any achievements in the online music store.Overestimating its own underestimation of the market In the years before and after the outbreak of the Android smartphone trend, HTC relied on its good relationship with overseas carriers to gain a rich reputation in Europe and America through the “sea tactics” of dozens of high-end smartphone products a year. Profit. In the early years, HTC was in a psychedelic state in the high-end market. HTC thought that it could be the same as Apple to dominate the consumer’s intention to speak, and can continue to rely on high-end machines to profit. Since the launch of Dream in 2008, to later Wildfire, Butterfly and New One, these smart phones are characterized by versatility, complete specifications and high-quality appearance. Their benchmarking products are Apple’s iPhone, and the price is naturally different. Up and down, at least $400 or more. The high price directly excludes the low-end market users who are still in the embryonic stage of the smartphone. The profit margin of the low-end commodity microblog is difficult to meet the appetite of HTC. In the market selection, HTC focuses on the high-end market in Europe, America and Japan, but ignores the low-end consumer market. Especially in the face of the potential stocks in the Chinese market, HTC has not been concerned. HTC’s milestone product M7, its national version has more than one product defect compared to the overseas version, this difference treatment, the mainland consumers are very disappointed. A series of chain effects brought about a rapid decline in HTC word of mouth. Since 2013, Huami ov, the four mainland smartphone brands, has grown rapidly. With the help of the 4G tide, they have cut into the market from low-priced mid-range smartphone products, focusing on cost-effective and beauty camera functions. The appearance imitates the iPhone design, with the precise marketing strategy, and successfully defeated the vast number of consumers with the gesture of killing the master. When HTC was frustrated in the European and American markets, it remembered the Chinese market, but at the moment the Chinese market has already smashed the sea. Apple Samsung Huawei firmly holds the high-end market. The fierce competition of Internet mobile phones represented by Xiaomi has already cut off the low-end retreat of HTC in the Chinese market. In August 2015, HTC announced its second-quarter earnings report, with a net loss of NT$8 billion (according to the prevailing exchange rate of RMB 1.6 billion). Since then, HTC’s earnings report has been declining every quarter. Product and product line myths no matter high-end or low-end, when it comes to machine-sea tactics, HTC is definitely a master. From 2008 to 2012, HTC released more than 50 mobile phones along with a small number of WM system phones. The naming method of HTC’s products is also like a foggy naming mode, HTC One, HTC One X, HTC One X+, HTC One XL, HTC One V, HTC One S, overlapping flagship, weak differences. The high-end image that HTC originally strived to create was seriously damaged. In 2015, HTC Light launched 24 smartphones in Taiwan. In the high-end segment, HTC first launched its flagship mobile phone M9, and then launched a large screen version of the M9+, a small screen version of the M9s, and released a camera at the end of the year. The M9+ Aurora version of the function; the main end of the E series main plastic body, in addition to E9, E9+, also launched special models S9, A9, X9, and even introduced in the mainland market and the mid-end E series variant: ME 9. The series of models have been slightly revised in hardware specifications and repackaged into new products. This practice has never been seen before. HTC’s slogan “quietly brilliant” means “to see excellence in moderation”. The long-term OEM attribute and the cooperation of operators have cultivated the gentle personality of HTC, but there are obvious shortcomings in the technological innovation of the products. For example, HTC launched New One in February 2013. This “secret weapon” that has accumulated HTC’s more than ten years of skill and three years of research and development has won praises from many insiders. What is the secret weapon of New One? The New One uses an all-metal casing with extremely high process difficulty, which causes the supply of HTC smartphone case to be insufficient to meet the needs of users.The practice of HTC is exactly the same as that of the millet mix used in the early millennium. Because the supply of the mobile phone shell is insufficient, it sounds a bit funny. In the flagship machine pursuit of high pixel environment, HTC uses “super pixel” camera technology in the flagship product, but because it was limited to the pixel can not be high under the super pixel, can only limit the camera to 4 million pixels The technical bottleneck on the trend, the 4 million pixels moving against the trend, its resolution is seriously insufficient, the actual experience did not meet expectations. And the Samsung S4 at the same time clearly opened the distance. Good steel can’t be used on the blade, and HTC and the user are gradually drifting away. Can HTC wait for the “second spring”? On September 21, 2017, HTC announced an agreement with Google to sell it to the RD division of Google Pixel, a Google OEM smartphone, for $1.1 billion (about 6.6 billion yuan). More than 2,000 talents will be merged into Google. In addition, in the transaction, HTC agreed to grant some of its patents to Google. After Google’s rescue, HTC achieved a revenue of 31.6 billion Taiwan dollars in the first quarter of 2018, and a net profit after tax of 21.1 billion Taiwan dollars (about 5.2 billion yuan), ending the 11th quarter of losses since the second quarter of 2015. From this point of view, the mobile phone business that helped push the technology wave on the HTC station in the past seems to have become cumbersome. Obviously, there is not much practical significance in talking about the HTC smartphone business with a market share of only 1%. In reality, it has basically no possibility of re-emergence. The Hundreds of Pests died without being stiff. While closing the door of the HTC smartphone business, God also opened the VR window for HTC. And this seems to be a resurgence of HTC in the front end of virtual reality. In March 2015, the Global Mobile Communications Conference was held in Barcelona. HTC Vive, a head-mounted virtual reality product jointly developed by HTC and video game dealer Valve, was first exposed and officially announced its entry into the VR industry. Drawing on the lessons of mobile phones, HTC has taken advantage of the first-mover advantage in the VR field, and is also actively deploying the ecosystem. Starting in 2016, HTC has opened the path of transformation from hardware to VR platform: the Vive X project, the VR/AR entrepreneurs, the Vive Studios to produce VR content, and the Viveport to build its own VR store to attract VR developers. Today, HTC has launched Vive Wave, an open mobile VR platform built with Qualcomm, to unify China’s mobile VR ecosystem from hardware to software. As for the mobile phone business, Wang Xuehong stated that their true flagship machine will follow 5G. When the market is ready, it will definitely launch the 5G mobile phone in the first time. Wang Xuehong believes that in the era of 5G, vr, and artificial intelligence, HTC can still stand the forefront. We hope so, but the fact that the HTC mobile phone business has become a thing of the past has become an indisputable fact. Conclusion The failure of HTC also symbolizes the end of an era. In this era of chaos killing the master, the former hegemons were eliminated one by one, Nokia sold Microsoft, and Motorola was kicked to Lenovo by Google. New players reshape the gameplay and rules of the world, and players who don’t understand all of this can only be squeezed out. This is not only the collapse of HTC, but also the collapse of an era. .