编者按：本文来自微信公众号“甲方研究社”（ID：jiafangribao），作者 甲方研究社，独家首发腾讯科技，未经授权， 不得转载。权威调研机构IDC数据显示，今年第一季度，在全球市场，华为、OPPO、vivo、小米四家手机厂商的市场份额达到了42%。另外一家研究机构Counterpoint的报告也显示，在中国市场，这四家厂商更是垄断了超过70%的份额。随着华为、OPPO、vivo、小米在国产手机阵营中的地位彻底稳固，留给其他竞争对手的生存空间也越来越少，曾经金立、魅族、酷派等耳熟能详的手机品牌也渐渐走向了没落。甲方研究社近日发起系列策划，复盘国产手机大败局，从这些手机厂商的身影中，总结出宝贵的经验和教训。HTC坍塌今年5月，HTC发出的一条微博，重新吸引了大家对它的关注。HTC在微博中表示：“出于对HTC中国长期经营策略的考量，我们将暂时关闭HTC手机京东旗舰店和天猫旗舰店。大家仍然可以通过HTC官方商城和HTC VIVE旗舰店，购买HTC智能手机及配件产品。我们也仍将一如既往为大家提供优质的售前和售后服务。”全球最早的安卓手机、曾经的安卓机皇，正这样一步步远离我们。尽管凭借HTC U19e的助力，HTC 6月营收为14.61亿新台币（约合人民币3.22亿元），创造了近7个月以来的最好成绩，较上月大幅增长94%。但这并能不代表HTC手机业务的复苏。在最近的股东会上，HTC董事长王雪红只字不提手机业务，而是动员所有部门聚焦VR。时间倒退九年，彼时的王雪红依靠HTC的异军突起问鼎台湾首富。2011年，HTC占全球手机市场的份额高达9.1%，市值攀升至335亿美元，超过上世纪手机巨头诺基亚，仅次于苹果，一跃成为智能手机品牌霸主，那是HTC最风光的时候。但这八年来HTC究竟如何一步一步沦落至此？它的成败又给了我们哪些经验和教训？今天甲方研究社将为您揭秘。01.HTC发家史HTC最早被熟知的名字是宏达电子，而它的发家史深深地打上了时代的烙印——台湾代工厂的崛起。1997年，台湾首富王永庆之女王雪红与周永明、卓火土共同创办了HTC，意为“High Tech Computer”。成立之初，HTC主要是代工制造搭载Windows CE系统的掌上电脑，但当时并未能打开局面。直到2000年与康柏作生产的iPAQ横空出世。这款掌上电脑在2000年被列为吉尼斯世界纪录里功能最强之PDA。iPAQ的热销让HTC扭亏为盈，成为众多OEM厂商中的翘楚。大树底下好乘凉，由于在前期形成了良好的合作基础，2002年，微软联合HTC推出了全球第一台搭载Windows mobile的Pocket PC。从而在美国市场风生水起，HTC在Windows mobile平台的份额一度高达80%，利润率空前高涨。同年，HTC还推出轰动市场的“多普达686”手机。在彩屏手机还是稀罕物的年代，多普达686集通信、互联网、电脑等功能于一体，不仅能上网冲浪，还可以听MP3、看电影。多普达686对市场的震撼可想而知。火热的市场并没有影响王雪红对代工模式本质的判断，2004年以后，代工厂的利润却渐渐走低，大环境促使王雪红带领HTC开始自我革命。2006年，HTC走向了自主品牌的建设之路。凭借多年代工经验，HTC在2007年2008年分别推出HTC Touch和HTC Diamond这两款手机的问世，虽是小试牛刀但足够引人注目。2008年，谷歌向HTC抛出橄榄枝，HTC成为34家公司共建的“开放手机联盟”中的一员，同年，HTC推出了全球第一款搭载了安卓系统的智能手机G1，成为了当时第一个与iPhone抗衡的安卓系统手机品牌，也正是这款手机，将HTC推向了行业的巅峰，公司的股价飙涨，一时风光无限。而依靠在谷歌安卓系统的先发优势，HTC一路开疆扩土，2010年，HTC的智能手机出货量为2460万部。根据咨询公司尼尔森的报告，HTC在2011年曾以9.1%的市场份额位居全球智能手机厂商第二名，仅次于占据29%市场份额的苹果公司。而在美国市场，2011年第三季度HTC市场占有率超过了苹果。2011年4月6日，HTC市值暴增至逾335亿美元，超越诺基亚与黑莓，成为市值仅次苹果的全球第二大手机厂商，到达历史巅峰。02.专利之殇HTC的野蛮生长的背后其实危机四伏。就在HTC最辉煌的2011年，也成了它的拐点年。2011年，苹果对HTC举起了专利大棒，控告HTC侵犯了苹果的10项专利，并要求在美国禁止出售HTC产品。而在这场战争中，专利储备不足的HTC不幸败北。在2011年12月20日，美国国际贸易委员会对苹果与HTC的专利诉讼案做出判决，认定HTC侵犯了苹果iPhone的一项专利。而涉及此项专利的所有智能手机，自2012年4月19日起，HTC手机正式实施进口禁令。自2012年开始，诺基亚在欧洲各地对HTC发起专利诉讼。2013年至2014年间，HTC部分手机产品在荷兰、英国等市场陆续遭到禁售，致使其在欧洲的市场份额大幅减少。到了2013年，HTC的手机产品在全球的市占率已不及2%，掉出前十大手机品牌之列。正面和苹果、诺基亚对干专利战，不仅赔上了庞大的诉讼费用以及和解金，消耗资本基底，更输掉占其市场主力的欧美地区。依靠先发优势和野蛮生长，HTC可以迅速打造一个强有力的品牌，也能够快速占领一个市场，技术的积累无法一蹴而就，HTC的命门始终攥在别人手中。对比苹果，HTC投靠安卓没有iOS软硬件自成一格的闭环优势。对比三星能够在上游控制 CPU、闪存、内存、显示屏；中游涵盖了手机设计、品牌影响、组装制造；下游培养了一批彪悍的销售团队，将手机的零配件的60%都控制在自己手中生产，借助垂直模式集约生产，能够有效控制成本与生产进程。将外力因素减到最低，这种垂直集成的生产能力显然是由代工厂转型而来的HTC所缺乏的。一个鲜明的例子是2010年8月，三星以AMOLED面板产能不足为由，拒绝供货给HTC，HTC不得不更换智能手机G7的荧幕供应商，这对当时销售气势如虹的G7带来一定的冲击。代工厂起家的HTC具有浓厚的硬件属性，一位强调产品本身而忽略与之相匹配的生态。HTC在云端服务、内容提供、移动游戏上从没有过布局。虽然曾经和Beats 联姻，推过一段时间Beats 手机，但是在在线音乐商店上面却没有任何建树。03.高估自身低估市场在安卓智能手机潮流爆发的2010年前后，HTC靠着与海外通信商的良好关系，通过一年数十款高端智能手机产品的“机海战术”，在欧美日获得了丰厚的利润。In the early years, HTC was in a psychedelic state in the high-end market. HTC thought that it could be the same as Apple to dominate the consumer’s intention to speak, and can continue to rely on high-end machines to profit. Since the launch of Dream in 2008, to later Wildfire, Butterfly and New One, these smart phones are characterized by versatility, complete specifications and high-quality appearance. Their benchmarking products are Apple’s iPhone, and the price is naturally different. Up and down, at least $400 or more. The high price directly excludes the low-end market users who are still in the embryonic stage of the smartphone. The profit margin of the low-end commodity microblog is difficult to meet the appetite of HTC. In the market selection, HTC focuses on the high-end market in Europe, America and Japan, but ignores the low-end consumer market. Especially in the face of the potential stocks in the Chinese market, HTC has not been concerned. HTC’s milestone product M7, its national version has more than one product defect compared to the overseas version, this difference treatment, the mainland consumers are very disappointed. A series of chain effects brought about a rapid decline in HTC word of mouth. Since 2013, Huami ov, the four mainland smartphone brands, has grown rapidly. With the help of the 4G tide, they have cut into the market from low-priced mid-range smartphone products, focusing on cost-effective and beauty camera functions. The appearance imitates the iPhone design, with the precise marketing strategy, and successfully defeated the vast number of consumers with the gesture of killing the master. When HTC was frustrated in the European and American markets, it remembered the Chinese market, but at the moment the Chinese market has already smashed the sea. Apple Samsung Huawei firmly holds the high-end market. The fierce competition of Internet mobile phones represented by Xiaomi has already cut off the low-end retreat of HTC in the Chinese market. In August 2015, HTC announced its second-quarter earnings report, with a net loss of NT$8 billion (according to the prevailing exchange rate of RMB 1.6 billion). Since then, HTC’s earnings report has been declining every quarter. 04. Product and product line myths No matter high-end or low-end, when it comes to machine-sea tactics, HTC is definitely a master. From 2008 to 2012, HTC released more than 50 mobile phones together with a small number of WM system phones. The naming method of HTC’s products is also like a foggy naming mode, HTC One, HTC One X, HTC One X+, HTC One XL, HTC One V, HTC One S, overlapping flagship, weak differences. The high-end image that HTC originally strived to create was seriously damaged. In 2015, HTC Light launched 24 smartphones in Taiwan. In the high-end segment, HTC first launched its flagship mobile phone M9, and then launched a large screen version of the M9+, a small screen version of the M9s, and released a camera at the end of the year. The M9+ Aurora version of the function; the main end of the E series main plastic body, in addition to E9, E9+, also launched special models S9, A9, X9, and even introduced in the mainland market and the mid-end E series variant: ME 9. The series of models have been slightly revised in hardware specifications and repackaged into new products. This practice has never been seen before. HTC’s slogan “quietly brilliant” means “to see excellence in moderation”. The long-term OEM attribute and the cooperation of operators have cultivated the gentle personality of HTC, but there are obvious shortcomings in the technological innovation of the products. For example, HTC launched New One in February 2013. This “secret weapon” that has accumulated HTC’s more than ten years of skill and three years of research and development has won praises from many insiders. What is the secret weapon of New One? The New One uses an all-metal casing with extremely high process difficulty, which causes the supply of HTC smartphone case to be insufficient to meet the needs of users. The practice of HTC is exactly the same as that of the millet mix used in the early millennium. Because the supply of the mobile phone shell is insufficient, it sounds a bit funny.In the flagship machine pursuit of high pixel environment, HTC uses “super pixel” camera technology in the flagship product, but because it was limited to the pixel can not be high under the super pixel, can only limit the camera to 4 million pixels The technical bottleneck on the trend, the 4 million pixels moving against the trend, its resolution is seriously insufficient, the actual experience did not meet expectations. And the Samsung S4 at the same time clearly opened the distance. Good steel can’t be used on the blade, and HTC and the user are gradually drifting away. 05. Can HTC wait for the “second spring”? On September 21, 2017, HTC announced an agreement with Google to sell it to the RD division of Google Pixel, a Google OEM smartphone, for $1.1 billion (about 6.6 billion yuan). More than 2,000 talents will be merged into Google. In addition, in the transaction, HTC agreed to grant some of its patents to Google. After Google’s rescue, HTC achieved a revenue of 31.6 billion Taiwan dollars in the first quarter of 2018, and a net profit after tax of 21.1 billion Taiwan dollars (about 5.2 billion yuan), ending the 11th quarter of losses since the second quarter of 2015. From this point of view, the mobile phone business that helped push the technology wave on the HTC station in the past seems to have become cumbersome. Obviously, there is not much practical significance in talking about the HTC smartphone business with a market share of only 1%. In reality, it has basically no possibility of re-emergence. The Hundreds of Pests died without being stiff. While closing the door of the HTC smartphone business, God also opened the VR window for HTC. And this seems to be a resurgence of HTC in the front end of virtual reality. In March 2015, the Global Mobile Communications Conference was held in Barcelona. HTC Vive, a head-mounted virtual reality product jointly developed by HTC and video game dealer Valve, was first exposed and officially announced its entry into the VR industry. Drawing on the lessons of mobile phones, HTC has taken advantage of the first-mover advantage in the VR field, and is also actively deploying the ecosystem. Starting in 2016, HTC has opened the path of transformation from hardware to VR platform: the Vive X project, the VR/AR entrepreneurs, the Vive Studios to produce VR content, and the Viveport to build its own VR store to attract VR developers. Today, HTC has launched Vive Wave, an open mobile VR platform built with Qualcomm, to unify China’s mobile VR ecosystem from hardware to software. As for the mobile phone business, Wang Xuehong stated that their true flagship machine will follow 5G. When the market is ready, it will definitely launch the 5G mobile phone in the first time. Wang Xuehong believes that in the era of 5G, vr, and artificial intelligence, HTC can still stand the forefront. We hope so, but the fact that the HTC mobile phone business has become a thing of the past has become an indisputable fact. Conclusion: The failure of HTC also symbolizes the end of an era. In this era of chaos killing the master, the former hegemons were eliminated one by one, Nokia sold Microsoft, and Motorola was kicked to Lenovo by Google. New players reshape the gameplay and rules of the world, and players who don’t understand all of this can only be squeezed out. This is not only the collapse of HTC, but also the collapse of an era. .