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一波三折入华后,爱彼迎找到在华发展的正确路径了吗?

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编者按:本文来自腾讯科技《潜望》栏目,作者韩依民,36氪经授权发布。划重点:在正式入华的四年里,爱彼迎从来没有像另一个共享经济巨头Uber一样吸引外界的注意,这与其保守谨慎的入华策略息息相关。入华的第一阶段,Airbnb的重点是扩大其在中国出境游用户中的知名度,换言之,拓展本土房源、开拓本土市场并非中心。所有国际企业在中国面临的最大压力是需要去把中国看成一个不同的操作系统,这意味着爱彼迎需要在产品、市场营销、运营上围绕低线城市作出新的调整。如何维持平台调性与提升服务质量间的平衡,曾是外界对Airbnb的质疑之一,对此,Airbnb采取的依然是谨慎试探、慢慢推进的策略。在4月中旬宣布爱彼迎一季度中国业务量同比增长近3倍的信息后,7月初,爱彼迎再次对外宣布了今年上半年中国业务同比增长3倍的信息。“中国人住中国的房源。”上任即将一年的爱彼迎中国区总裁彭韬向《潜望》明确了3倍增长的数据统计口径,这意味着,无论在供给端还是需求端,过去半年时间里爱彼迎确实取得了一个不错的成绩。而如此密集的发布相关数据,足以证明爱彼迎中国及其操盘团队,亟需一场胜利来证明自己。在正式入华的四年里,爱彼迎从来没有像另一个共享经济巨头Uber一样吸引外界的注意,这与其保守谨慎的入华策略息息相关。同时,入华策略的持续修正,以及在华团队的变动和动荡,都干扰了短租巨头在中国建立影响力的过程。去年年中,空闲了近一年的爱彼迎中国区负责人的位置终于有了新人选,作为曾经创办了面包旅行的创业者,彭韬的上任被外界寄予了很多期待,彭韬选择用业务增长速度来证明自己的能力。与数据相比,更加值得关注的是增长背后,爱彼迎中国发展策略及团队的变化,面对复杂的中国市场,这家试图分享庞大中国市场蛋糕的全球短租巨头,成为了另一个值得关注的对象。历经坎坷的中国本土化进程尽管历史经验表明,中国市场是块难啃的骨头,但与庞大市场蕴藏的机会而言,风险似乎可以承受。关于中国市场的重要程度,Airbnb经历了一个了解的过程。2011年开始在上海运营Airbnb的李昂,是国内最早批的Airbnb房东,他曾自费参与了在洛杉矶和巴黎举行的两届Airbnb全球房东大会,是Airbnb平台及相应文化的忠实拥趸,也见证了Airbnb在中国发展的过程。如今,他依然清楚记得,来自新加坡Airbnb亚洲总部的员工联系他并来到上海参观房源的情景。“当时他们并不重视中国大陆市场,也只不过逐渐逐渐开始了解。他们会好奇中国:我都没怎么认真做,连个Office都没有,也有人在这里做我的客户,所以他们会来采访你,也会来了解一下。”现实很快驱使Airbnb做出决定,2015年8月,Airbnb宣布正式入华,开始了其漫长的本土化进程。Airbnb宣布正式进入中国市场的时间,恰逢Uber中国与滴滴激战正酣,那场被柳青称为“史诗般对决”的商战,向市场和公众展示了共享经济蕴藏的能量,正因如此,作为另一大共享经济鼻祖,Airbnb入华的一举一动也备受关注。与Uber快速落地的做法不同,Airbnb的策略趋向保守,然而谨小慎微的行事依然无法避免其入华之路一波三折。入华的第一阶段,Airbnb的重点是扩大其在中国出境游用户中的知名度,换言之,拓展本土房源、开拓本土市场并非中心。制定这一策略与彼时国内短租市场的现状相关:社会信用体系匮乏、房源量少质差、监管并不明朗。In this regard, Airbnb co-founder Nathan Blecharczyk (Chinese name: Bai Siqi) also explained in an interview with “Plough” in 2015 that the reason for choosing this strategy is because on the one hand, the number of Chinese outbound tourists is huge, another The aspect is also to temporarily evade the positive competition with existing players in the country. After the cautious temptation led to the first anniversary of the official entry into China, Airbnb’s Chinese name is still undecided, and the head of the Chinese business has not yet settled. In this regard, domestic counterparts once gave a “regret” evaluation. This is obviously not a long-term solution. In September 2016, Airbnb began to expand its team in China; in March 2017, at the first press conference after its official entry into China, Airbnb announced its Chinese name, Airbnb, and introduced one to the outside world. Chinese face – Ge Hong, vice president of technology. In the exquisite western restaurant on the Bund, Airbnb CEO Brian Chesky led Ge Hong together. The sensitive people captured the message that the Chinese team will have a new leader. However, Ge Hong is not the protagonist of the conference. The media did not The opportunity to communicate. In June of the same year, Ge Hong was appointed as the vice president of Airbnb Global Airbnb, responsible for Airbnb’s China affairs, and as the product director and technical director of Airbnb China. Ge Hong has a strong technical background. The appointment reflects Airbnb’s desire to continue to improve the product to achieve better localization. At this stage, Airbnb, which places great emphasis on platform tonality, does not want to make special changes to the Chinese market in operation, even though China’s local short-term tenants have extended to the offline and upstream of the industry chain. In the month of his appointment, Ge Hong led the team to introduce a story function customized for the Chinese market, you can understand it as a simple travel guide. However, the idea of ​​product-driven localization suffered setbacks in personnel. After four months in office, Ge Hong left Airbnb and even involved more disputes about private life. At the same time, information about the guilt of the Airbnb China team is also circulating. In order to stabilize the situation, at the same time that Ge Hong left office, Bai Siqi became the chairman of Airbnb China, and in parallel with the personnel changes, it was another revision of Bai Siqi’s strategy for Airbnb’s entry into China: setting up a local customer service center. , experimental housing field optimization, the establishment of the landlord college. These measures that need to enter the offline have not been recognized by Airbnb before, but in the face of changes in China’s short-term rental market, sticking to the original practice may miss the opportunity, so do more localization and improvement around the Chinese market, and therefore become no So unacceptable. At the same time as a series of changes occurred, the head of the local China region was always vacant. Until July last year, Airbnb announced that Peng Yu, the founder of the original bread travel, would become the president of Airbnb China. Due to various previous twists and turns, Peng Yu’s appointment was placed on the outside world with greater expectations. The independent operating system is different from the initial stage of entering China. The current Airbnb-targeted cake is no longer limited to China’s huge outbound tourists, but is placed in a larger domestic market, allowing Chinese to live in China’s housing. The US headquarters is Peng Yuding’s largest KPI, which can be broken down into two parts: quantity and quality. Since last year, Airbnb has begun to emphasize its growth in the sinking market in its external communications. In the summer report released not long ago, Airbnb mentioned that the number of tourists in Qinghai and Haixi has increased by 9 times. According to the information provided by Airbnb, Haixi, Yanbian, Rizhao, Zhanjiang and Xuzhou, which are not traditional big cities, are already contributing to the growth of the friendly. Peng Yu believes that sinking is something that Airbnb must do, because “any enterprise must be rooted in the third- and fourth-tier cities,” and if you want to expand the business of Airbnb to low-tier cities, you must The removal of obstacles that hinder the expansion of network effects means that Airbnb needs to make new adjustments around low-tier cities in terms of products, marketing and operations. Peng Yu did not clearly point out which are obstacles, but he introduced many product innovations on his products after he took office: based on POI and time search, landlord homepage and landlord marketing platform, these innovations are unique to China.At the same time, China has also established an independent product team. At present, the person in charge of China’s products is the important employee recruited by Peng Yu after he took office. He has worked in local product teams such as Where to Go, Netease Cloud Music, and Compared to the IT elite in Silicon Valley, this is a local player who is more accustomed to the habits and psychology of Chinese users. For a global company originating in the United States, it is not easy to conduct so many localization attempts for a single market. Behind the change is the continuous iteration of ideas and cognition. “Peng Yu put forward a lot of goals and brought a lot of urgency to our team.” In September 2018, in a building in the old city of Shanghai, Bai Siqi and Peng Yu attended the event and were interviewed by the media. This is also Peng Yu. The first public event to participate after taking office. In the face of the question of “Peeping”, Bai Siqi said the above sentence. Peng Yu explained to “Peeping” that the so-called urgency is mainly from the cognitive level. “I analyzed with him that the biggest pressure that all international companies face in China is to treat China as a different operating system.” It’s simpler and harder to do.” A simple example is that although from the first day of entering China, Airbnb executives stressed that they are learning and understanding Chinese culture, but until last year, Airbnb’s landlord in China The fee settlement is only connected to Alipay – previously only PayPal and international wire transfer. Helping Airbnb colleagues in the United States to understand China is one of Peng’s work. “We will now have some activities for American colleagues to come to China. It is best to invite them to Beijing. First of all, I feel that Beijing is so big, he didn’t. I want to be so big, to this extent. Second, after they came, they found that the Chinese did not have a wallet, and all used mobile payment. After they came, they asked me, ‘Hey, give me some money, or I can’t make it. Accounts. They are still quite shocking to them. They know that China is different. They don’t know that this is different. The only explanation is different operating systems.” Cognitive communication and persuasion have earned Peng’s greater autonomy. Peng Yu replied to the question about what things can be decided by himself and what needs to be discussed with the headquarters. Peng Wei replied: Basically, it is a separate startup company, which is not much different from running a startup company. How to maintain the balance between platform tonality and improve service quality has been one of the outsiders’ doubts about Airbnb. In this regard, Airbnb is still adopting a strategy of cautious temptation and slow progress. For example, the customer service problem that has been criticized only through email communication is driven by a series of negative events. In 2017, Airbnb decided to establish a local customer service team. Now, local users can already call by phone. Contact Airbnb’s customer service team. Peng Yu told the “Peeping Hope” that the size of the customer service team will be further expanded this year. Brand, quality and community are the three keynotes that Parker has set for China’s business. Compared with China’s local B&B short-term rental players, the community is the brand that has the most business culture in its operation. The landlord college established in the second half of 2017 is specially established by Airbnb to cultivate the domestic landlord’s operational capabilities. In different cities, Airbnb will send offline activities to the landlord from time to time, inviting the superhost to share successful experiences. The content of the offline activities will also be uploaded to the online WeChat public account for more landlords to view. Li Ang has been invited to participate in offline activities to share, the cost of going back and forth and going to the venue is not small, but Airbnb has no other compensation than box lunch. As a senior landlord, Li Ang has not had much dealings with Airbnb. It is still his personal recognition of Airbnb culture that drives Li Ang to be willing to pay time and energy. Since then, due to his achievements in housing operations and his contribution to the community, he was selected by Airbnb as the captain and went to Beijing to participate in Airbnb training. The captain is the way the landlord has been set up by Airbnb more than a year ago: from the landlords of various places, the excellent landlord becomes the captain and becomes the person in charge of the relevant region. Airbnb will not pay, but some captains have the opportunity. Get the opportunity to travel abroad with other countries and regions Airbnb landlords.”This is Chinese characteristics, this is our community based on China.” Peng Yu introduced. The landlord college and team leader mechanism helped Airbnb manage the vast community of landlords in a more sophisticated way. Compared with its Chinese disciples, Airbnb emphasized the intervention of the landlord “software” instead of directly reaching the room. In source operations, this impact on the landlord population may be greater than what is currently perceived. Li Ang told The Periscope that although Airbnb invested in the city last year, on the landlord side, the impact of the city was too small to be perceived. Since many domestic short-term rental platforms have started to launch their own operating houses, this will cause platform traffic to tilt towards those houses, which means that the platform is both a referee and an athlete, which is not fair to third-party landlords. An important reason why Li Ang chose to stick to Airbnb. Compared with local competitors, Airbnb’s approach can crowd more landlords, but at the same time, it may sacrifice some speed and effectiveness. More attempts are still being made on a small scale. For example, to compensate for some of the shortcomings of offline operations, the platform will work with third-party suppliers. Since March last year, Airbnb has introduced professional third-party linen washing in Shanghai. Distribution agency. Local players such as Piglet and Tujia have already launched the independent brand of renting communes around the problems and needs that may arise in the operation of the hotel. Tujia has also launched a group of teams to launch the “Two Hosts”. There is a homestay. From the actions of Airbnb, it can be seen that despite being a pioneer in the global short-term rental platform, local apprentices have become the target of Airbnb observation and learning in how to adapt to the Chinese market. Just like a balance, once the representative of the Airbnb representative, the domestic native players represent the other end, and now the Airbnb is wandering at the ends of the balance, looking for the best way to survive in the careful exploration. .

Tags : Internet entrepreneurshipInternet entrepreneurship project创业